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扎金和博伊尔肝病学:肝病教科书-Zakim and Boyer’s Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease

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上传于 2020-03-02 20次下载 1009次围观
文件编号:6242
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标题(title):Zakim and Boyer’s Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease
扎金和博伊尔肝病学:肝病教科书
作者(author):Arun J. Sanyal, Keith D. Lindor, Thomas D. Boyer, Norah A. Terrault
出版社(publisher):Elsevier
大小(size):166 MB (174097174 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Cleaned hardcover version with correct pagination and bookmarks, as well as correctly rotated pages.
Table of contents :
Zakim and Boyer's Hepatology......Page 1
Copyright Page......Page 3
Contributors......Page 4
Preface......Page 12
Gross Anatomy......Page 13
Development of the Liver......Page 15
Portal Tracts and the Biliary System......Page 16
The Biliary Tree......Page 18
Cholangiocytes......Page 19
Lobular and Acinar Functional Units......Page 20
Plasma Membrane......Page 21
Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes, and Golgi Apparatus......Page 22
Lysosomes......Page 23
The Hepatic Sinusoid......Page 24
Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells......Page 25
Stellate Cells......Page 27
Heterogeneity......Page 29
References......Page 30
References......Page 31
Pathways of Bile Acid Synthesis From Cholesterol......Page 35
Bile Acid Conjugation......Page 39
Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis......Page 40
Defects Involving Reactions to the Steroid Nucleus......Page 41
Oxysterol 7α-Hydroxylase Deficiency......Page 42
3β-Hydroxy-̿5 C27-Steroid Oxidoreductase Deficiency......Page 43
̿4-3-Oxosteroid 5β-Reductase 䄀䬀刀㄀䐀㄀ Deficiency......Page 44
Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Deficiency: Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis......Page 46
Peroxisomal Disorders......Page 47
Bile Acid-CoA Conjugation Defects......Page 48
Enterocyte Bile Acid Physiology......Page 49
Bile Acid Signaling as a Treatment for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis......Page 50
References......Page 51
References......Page 52
Historical Perspective and Technology Development......Page 58
Intestinal Barrier......Page 60
How Does the Host Maintain Homeostasis With Continued Exposure to an Enormous Microbial Load?......Page 62
Mucosal and Liver Tolerance......Page 63
Liver and Pattern Recognition Receptors......Page 64
Microbiota, Hepatic Inflammation, and Fibrosis......Page 65
The Intestinal Microbiota as a Mediator of Hepatic Inflammation......Page 66
The Intestinal Microbiota as a Mediator of Hepatic Fibrosis......Page 67
The Intestinal Microbiome and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease......Page 68
Human Studies......Page 69
Functional and Mechanistic Insights From the Intestinal Microbiome in NAFLD......Page 71
Intestinal Dysbiosis in Alcoholic Liver Disease......Page 74
Corollaries of Intestinal Dysbiosis in Alcoholic Liver Disease......Page 75
The Intestinal Microbiome and Autoimmune Liver Diseases......Page 76
Intestinal Dysbiosis in Experimental Fibrosis and Cirrhosis......Page 77
Intestinal Dysbiosis and Cirrhosis in Clinical Practice......Page 78
Clinical and Metabolic Corollaries of Intestinal Dysbiosis in Cirrhosis......Page 80
The Intestinal Microbiome and Hepatocellular Carcinoma......Page 81
The Intestinal Microbiome and Liver Transplant......Page 82
Interventions to Modulate the Intestinal Microbiome......Page 83
References......Page 86
References......Page 87
Monocytes and Macrophages......Page 93
Dendritic Cells......Page 95
Pattern Recognition Receptors......Page 96
Antigen Presentation and Adaptive Immunity......Page 98
Immune Response in Viral Hepatitis......Page 99
Hepatitis C Virus......Page 100
Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus......Page 101
Inflammation and Immunity in Liver Cancer......Page 102
References......Page 103
References......Page 104
Hepatic Inflammation as a Driver of Hepatic Fibrosis......Page 109
Hepatic Stellate Cells......Page 110
Natural Killer Cells and Natural Killer T Cells......Page 112
Toll-like Receptor Pathway......Page 113
MicroRNAs as Modulators of Liver Inflammation......Page 114
References......Page 115
References......Page 116
Introduction......Page 121
Occlusion of the Portal Veins With Donor Cells......Page 123
Initial Clinical Studies......Page 124
Hepatocyte Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure......Page 125
Hepatocyte Transplantation for Metabolic Liver Disease......Page 126
Patient Selection for Hepatocyte Transplantation......Page 127
Sources of Hepatocytes and Hepatocyte-Like Cells......Page 128
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells......Page 129
Organoid Culture of Hepatocyte Cells......Page 130
Tracking Donor Cells and Assessment of Cell Function After Transplant......Page 131
Engraftment and Long-Term Repopulation of Recipient Liver With Donor Cells......Page 132
References......Page 134
References......Page 135
Historical Perspective: 100 Years of Liver Function Tests......Page 138
Bilirubin......Page 139
Bile Acids......Page 140
Aminotransferases......Page 141
Alkaline Phosphatase......Page 142
Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio......Page 143
Establishing Abnormal Results......Page 144
Cholestatic and Hepatocellular Injury......Page 145
Acute-on-Chronic Liver Function Test Abnormalities......Page 148
Estimation of Fibrosis Based on Mathematical Scores......Page 149
Correlations Between Liver Function Test Results and Clinical Features......Page 150
Patients With Abnormal Liver Function Test Results: What to Ask and Assess......Page 152
Signs of Chronic Liver Disease......Page 153
Imaging......Page 154
References......Page 155
References......Page 156
The Value and Meaning of Fibrosis Staging and the Role of Liver Biopsies......Page 162
AST/Platelet Ratio and Fibrosis-4 Indexes......Page 163
FibroMeter......Page 164
Ultrasound......Page 165
Vibration-Controlled Elastography......Page 166
Hepatitis C......Page 167
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease......Page 169
Cholestatic Diseases......Page 170
References......Page 171
References......Page 172
Wilson Disease......Page 175
α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency......Page 176
Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis......Page 177
Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy as Example......Page 179
Drug-Induced Liver Injury......Page 180
Chronic Viral Hepatitis......Page 181
Next-Generation Sequencing......Page 182
References......Page 183
References......Page 184
Chronic Hepatitis and Cirrhosis......Page 186
Computed Tomography......Page 190
Imaging......Page 192
Liver Cell Adenoma......Page 193
Imaging......Page 195
Imaging......Page 197
Imaging......Page 200
Biliary IPBN......Page 201
Imaging.......Page 202
Imaging......Page 204
References......Page 205
References......Page 207
Imaging Modalities......Page 209
Hemangioma......Page 210
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia......Page 211
Hepatic Adenoma......Page 213
Bile Duct Hamartomas......Page 215
Biliary Cystadenoma......Page 218
Hepatocellular Carcinoma......Page 219
Cholangiocarcinoma......Page 223
Metastases......Page 225
References......Page 228
References......Page 229
Clinical-Pathologic Correlations......Page 231
Tissue Preparation and Stains......Page 232
Approach to Microscopy......Page 233
Acute Hepatitis......Page 234
Fatty Liver Diseases......Page 238
Metabolic Liver Diseases......Page 240
Granulomatous Inflammation in Liver Disease......Page 241
Hepatic Sinusoids......Page 243
Benign Hepatic Lesions/Tumors......Page 244
Malignant Tumors......Page 245
Liver Biopsies in Systemic Disease......Page 246
References......Page 247
References......Page 248
Sepsis/Septic Shock......Page 250
Upper GI Bleeding......Page 252
Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis......Page 253
Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolic Disease VTE......Page 254
Procedure Risk of Bleeding in Liver Disease......Page 255
Prognostication......Page 256
References......Page 257
References......Page 258
Ammonia......Page 261
Manganese Deposition......Page 262
Spectrum of Neurocognitive Impairment in Cirrhosis......Page 263
Diagnosis of Hepatic Encephalopathy......Page 264
Abdominal Imaging......Page 265
Paper and Pencil Tests......Page 266
Neurophysiologic Tests......Page 267
Goals for the Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy......Page 268
Metronidazole, Vancomycin, and Paromomycin......Page 270
Nonabsorbable Disaccharides......Page 271
Management of Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy......Page 272
Probiotics......Page 273
Dopaminergic Agents......Page 274
Hepatic Encephalopathy Resistant to Therapy or Persistent Hepatic Encephalopathy......Page 275
Liver Transplantation......Page 276
References......Page 277
References......Page 278
Plasma Volume Expansion......Page 284
Diagnosis......Page 285
Differential Diagnosis......Page 286
Diagnosis......Page 288
Treatment......Page 289
Prophylaxis......Page 290
Sodium Restriction......Page 291
Large-Volume Paracentesis......Page 292
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt......Page 293
Treatment of Hyponatremia......Page 294
Prognosis and Natural History......Page 295
References......Page 296
References......Page 297
Physiologic Principles of the Portal Circulation......Page 301
Physiologic Principles of Portal Hypertension......Page 302
Increased Intrahepatic Resistance......Page 303
Increased Splanchnic Blood Flow and the Hyperdynamic Circulatory State......Page 304
Portosystemic Collateral Circulation in Portal Hypertension......Page 305
Portosystemic Collaterals......Page 306
Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy......Page 307
Magnetic Resonance Imaging......Page 309
Ultrasound Real-Time Shear Wave Elastography......Page 310
Direct Transhepatic Portal Venous Pressure Measurement......Page 311
Splenomegaly......Page 312
Idiopathic Portal Hypertension......Page 313
Alcoholic Liver Disease......Page 314
Partial Nodular Transformation of the Liver......Page 315
Risk Factors and Natural History of Portal Hypertension?Related Bleeding......Page 316
Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy and Gastric Vascular Ectasia......Page 317
Diagnosis of Portal Hypertension?Related Bleeding......Page 318
β-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs......Page 319
Sclerotherapy......Page 320
Detachable Snares and Clips......Page 321
Esophageal Stents......Page 322
Preprimary Prophylaxis of Variceal Bleeding......Page 323
General Measures......Page 325
Specific Measures......Page 326
Gastric Varices......Page
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