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从克劳迪斯到哈德良的罗马人对基督徒的态度-Roman Attitudes Toward the Christians From Claudius to Hadrian

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标题(title):Roman Attitudes Toward the Christians From Claudius to Hadrian
从克劳迪斯到哈德良的罗马人对基督徒的态度
作者(author):John Granger Cook
出版社(publisher):Mohr Siebeck
大小(size):2 MB (2473298 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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John Granger Cook investigates the earliest interactions between Roman authorities and Christians. The events in Claudius' time surrounding "Chrestos" and possible Jewish Christians are fascinating but obscure. The persecutions of Nero and Trajan may be crucial for interpreting certain texts of the New Testament, including the Gospel of Mark, 1 Peter, and the Apocalypse.

Scholars have become increasingly skeptical of a persecution of the Christians during Domitian's rule, and the evidence is not strong. The rescript of Hadrian did little to change Trajan's policy with regard to the Christians. Although the texts provide no evidence for a general law against the Christians (probably no such law existed until the time of Decius), they do give some indication of the way magistrates characterized ("constructed") Christians: to Nero and his prefects the Christians were arsonists and harbored intense hatred of the human race; to Pliny and Trajan they were people who did not "supplicate our gods."
Table of contents :
Introduction...................................................................................... 1
Chapter one: Claudius and the Christians................................ 11
1 Chrestus, Jews and Christians ....................................................... 11
1.1 Claudius’ Relations with the Jews.......................................... 11
1.2 The Texts ............................................................................. 14
1.3 The Identity of Chrestus........................................................ 15
1.4 The Date in Orosius .............................................................. 22
1.5 The Tradition in Cassius Dio ................................................. 25
2 Conclusion ................................................................................... 27
Chapter two: Nero and the Christians....................................... 29
1 Pagan Sources .............................................................................. 29
1.1 IG VII, 2713 and Nero as Zeus Liberator ............................... 29
1.1.1 The Inscription........................................................... 30
1.1.2 The Gift of Freedom: Nero and Greece....................... 32
1.1.3 Zeus the Liberator ...................................................... 34
1.1.4 Archaeological Questions: Statues, Altars, and Temples 35
1.1.5 IG VII 2713, the Christians, and the New Testament .... 37
1.2 Nero and the New Testament ................................................. 38
1.3 Tacitus’ Text ........................................................................ 39
1.3.1 Tacitus’ Sources......................................................... 41
1.3.2 The Date of the Fire.................................................... 42
1.3.3 The Persecuting Magistrate......................................... 43
1.3.4 Human Help (Ann. 15.44.2) ........................................ 46
1.3.5 Arson and Faith (Ann. 15.44.2) ................................... 46
1.3.6 Crimes (Ann. 15.44.2) ................................................ 47
1.3.7 Christ, Pilate, and Chrestians (Ann. 15.44.3)................ 50
1.3.8 Repression (Ann. 15.44.3) .......................................... 50
1.3.9 Superstition (Ann. 15.44.3) ......................................... 51
1.3.10 Acceptable Roman Religion: A Digression .................. 54
1.3.11 Resurgence (Ann. 15.44.3).......................................... 56
1.3.12 Shocking and Shameful Things in Rome (Ann. 15.44.3) 57
1.3.13 Confession and Guilt (Ann. 15.44.4) ........................... 57
1.3.14 “Convicted” or “Added” (Ann. 15.4.4)......................... 59
1.3.15 Trial or Coercitive Process?......................................... 61
1.3.16 Hatred of the Human Race (Ann. 15.44.4) .................... 62
1.3.17 Misanthropy: Judaism and Christianity........................ 63
1.3.18 Public Enemies: Hatred of the Human Race? ............... 65
1.3.19 The Punishments: Textual Problems (Ann. 15.44.4)..... 69
1.3.20 The Outrageous Spectacle of Death (Ann. 15.44.4) ....... 73
1.3.21 Torture Shirts? (Ann. 15.44.4) ..................................... 77
1.3.22 Animal Skins (Ann. 15.44.4) ....................................... 78
1.3.23 Nero’s Gardens (Ann. 15.44.5) .................................... 79
1.3.24 Public Utility and Compassion (Ann. 15.44.5) .............. 81
1.4 The Persecution in Suetonius and the Question of Law............ 83
1.4.1 Livy, Valerius Maximus, and Cicero ............................ 85
1.4.2 Dio and Celsus............................................................ 86
1.4.3 Apostasy and mos maiorum......................................... 89
1.4.4 An Analogy: Heretics in the Codex Theodosianus......... 92
2 Christian Authors on the Persecution.............................................. 94
2.1 Tertullian and the Existence of an Institutum Neronianum ....... 95
2.2 Imperial Legislation? ............................................................. 97
3 Peter and Paul and other Martyrs of Nero ....................................... 98
3.1 Clement’s Epistle to the Corinthians....................................... 98
3.2 The Date of the Deaths of Peter and Paul ................................ 99
4 Peter, Mark, and Tacitus................................................................ 101
4.1 Papias ................................................................................... 101
4.2 Irenaeus ................................................................................ 104
4.3 Mark and Tacitus................................................................... 104
5 Nero and Revelation...................................................................... 105
5.1 Nero as an Interpretive Reference Point in the Apocalypse ...... 106
5.2 The Worship of Nero and the Worship of the Beast ................. 108
6 Conclusion.................................................................................... 110
Chapter three: Domitian and the Christians............................ 112
1 Imperial Ideology.......................................................................... 112
1.1 Architecture .......................................................................... 112
1.2 Dominus et Deus ................................................................... 113
1.3 Inscriptional Evidence ........................................................... 116
2 Persecution of the Christians.......................................................... 117
2.1 Bruttius ................................................................................. 117
2.2 Cassius Dio ........................................................................... 121
2.3 Suetonius .............................................................................. 122
2.4 Maiestas and Atheism............................................................ 125
2.5 Domitian and Anti-Judaism.................................................... 12
2.6 Dio, Judaism, and Flavia Domitilla ........................................ 128
2.7 Political Grounds for the Trials.............................................. 131
2.8 Trials of Christians in Domitian’s Principate? ........................ 132
2.8.1 Clement’s Epistle to the Corinthians............................ 132
2.8.2 Pliny’s Trials of the Christians .................................... 135
3 Conclusion ................................................................................... 136
Chapter four: Trajan and the Christians................................... 138
1 Pliny and Trajan ........................................................................... 138
1.1 Pliny’s Career ....................................................................... 138
1.2 Pliny in Bithynia................................................................... 143
1.2.1 Propraetor .................................................................. 144
1.2.2 The Trials of the Christians......................................... 146
1.3 The Text of the Letter to Trajan and Trajan’s Response .......... 148
1.4 Roman Trials: The Question of Extraordinary Procedure ....... 151
1.5 The Context .......................................................................... 156
1.6 The Rhetorical Structure and Nature of the Letter ................... 156
1.7 Pliny’s Trials of Christians and Earlier Trials (10.96.1)........... 158
1.8 The Judicial Investigation and Punishments (10.96.1) ............. 162
1.9 Flagitia (10.96.2).................................................................. 165
1.10 The Nomen Christianorum (10.96.2) ...................................... 166
1.11 The Executions (10.96.3)....................................................... 168
1.12 Obstinacy and Contumacy (10.96.3) ...................................... 169
1.13 Madness, Charges, and Anonymous Pamphlets (10.96.4-5) ..... 173
1.14 Prayers and Supplications (10.96.5) ....................................... 176
1.14.1 Narratives of Supplication in Livy............................... 177
1.14.2 Supplications in Inscriptions and other Texts ............... 178
1.15 Incense and Wine (10.96.5) ................................................... 179
1.15.1 Inscriptional Evidence ................................................ 180
1.15.2 The Arval Brethren..................................................... 181
1.15.3 Martyrological Accounts and other Christian Literature 182
1.16 Statues/Images of Trajan and the Gods (10.96.5) .................... 183
1.16.1 Inscriptions ................................................................ 183
1.16.2 Archaeological Evidence ...........
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