标题（title）：A new view of insanity. The duality of the mind proved by the structure, functions, and diseases of the brain, and by the phenomena of mental derangement, and shewn to be essential to moral responsibility.
作者（author）：Arthur Ladbroke Wigan
出版社（publisher）：Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans
大小（size）：15 MB (16118643 bytes)
The question of how many angels can dance on the head of a pin has long since ceased to exercise our finest scholars. Yet if one wanted a contemporary analogue the following might suffice: how many minds may a man (or woman) manifest? “One”, said Rene Descartes; “Two”, said Arthur Wigan and Roger Sperry; “Fortytwo”, said Franz-Joseph Gall.
The answer “Two” was sanctified by the award of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology to Sperry for the work that he and his colleagues had undertaken on commissurotomized patients. Some 20 years earlier, the eminent Los Angeles neurosurgeon Joseph Bogen had succeeded in reducing the incidence of major convulsive seizures in a small group of severely epileptic patients by sectioning the main cortical fibre tracts (commissures) that connect the two hemispheres of the brain. Sperry’s intensive testing of the cognitive functions of these patients’ now-disconnected cortices sparked a veritable explosion of interest in the differential psychological capacities of the left and right cerebral hemispheres. On one account of the results, Bogen’s operation did not create two minds within a single body but rather revealed that we are all dual creatures, deluded in our belief that each of us is an indivisible self.
Bogen’s (or Bogens’) own interest in these issues has extended beyond the investigation and interpretation of his “splitbrain” patients to include the history of neurological speculation about cerebral duality. One fruit of his delving into the past is this splendidly handsome reprint of Arthur Wigan’s Victorian epic of 1844, the scope and character of which is best shown by its full title: A New View of Insanity: The Duality of the Mind Proved by the Structure, Functions, and Diseases of the Brain and by the Phenomena of Mental Derangement, and Shown to be Essential to Moral Responsibility. Indeed, Wigan’s version of the “two-brain” theory is sufficiently close to some modern accounts for Bogen to name his own position “neowiganism”.
Who might want to read the book today? To begin with, anyone who is concerned with the relationship between the neurosciences and society will he fascinated to see Wigan struggling to resolve the tension between biological determinism, educability and moral choice. Wigan’s phraseology, and the certainty of his Victorian belief in scientific and ethical progress, may seem quaint to our more cynical ears:
The only limit to our researches on the nature of the mind, will ultimately be the boundary fixed by the Almighty to the powers of the human intellect - a point from which we are yet immeasurably distant. When we shall have cultivated all the faculties which He has bestowed upon us, to their full extent and perfection, then indeed will come the Millennium – an issue towards which we are steadily and rapidly advancing .... ;
yet his discussion of the potential conflicts between humanistic and scientific approaches to psychiatry and neurology is a good deal more honest and open than many current positions.
Second, the book should be read by all students of neuropsychology. Wigan is a pre-modern in that his work pre-dates the discovery of complementary hemispheric specialization that became (and remains) the central dogma of human neuro-psychology. Thus the notion that the left hemisphere is primarily implicated in language functions and the right in visuospatial functions is quite alien to Wigan’s time. For Wigan, the hemispheres are full duplicates with respect to their intrinsic cognitive capacities; it is solely “slight inequalities” of “form, energy, and function” that suffice “to produce all the varieties of character which are to be found in the world”. Accordingly, many of the case reports that Wigan describes are directed towards showing that “One cerebrum may be destroyed, yet the mind remain entire”. The contemporary student would benefit greatly from the exercise of contemplating whether Wigan’s conclusion derives merely from inadequate testing of non-verbal skills or rather contains an important truth that has been buried under our own obsession with complementary specialization.
Table of contents :
Chapter I. — Introduction. — Unsettled State of Mental Philosophy. — A new Instrument for its Investigation — Mind and Soul. 1
Chapter II. — Origin of the Work. — Rev. J. Barlow on Man's Power over himself to prevent and control Insanity. — High Intellectual Cultivation of the Clergy. — There can be no discrepancy between the Word and the Works of God 8
Chapter III. — Description of the Brain adapted to Non-Medical Readers. — Functions of the Brain. 14
Chapter IV. — The Duality of the Mind. — Propositions to be proved. — Results if proved. 24
Chapter V Disclaimer of Materialism. — Mind in its popular sense connected with the Material World by means of our Physical Organization. — Use of the Ganglionic System. 32
Chapter VI. — Progress of my own Convictions. — Proofs that one Cerebrum may be destroyed, yet the Mind remain entire. Examples from Conolly, Johnson, Cruveilhier, Abercrombie, Ferriar, O'Halloran, and others. — Reflections. — Case of Cardinal, from Dr. Bright's Work. — Early Remarks of Dr. Gall. 38
Chapter VII. — Quotation from Quarterly Review. — Comparison with a Theatre. — Pinel. — Double Volition from Cerebral disturbance, caused by great anxiety. 55
Chapter VIII. — False Perceptions. — Errors of the Organs of Sense. Example of Delusion. — My own Delusion. — Case of Nicolai and Dr. Bostock. — Case of Cerebral disturbance from diffused Gout. — Double Mind. — Self-Restraint. — Case of Moral Insanity. 65
Chapter IX. — Sentiment of Pre-existence. — Explanation. — Princess Charlotte's Funeral. — Impressions on the Senses — Phrenology. — Clergyman with opposing Convictions. — Remarks of Mr. Solly. — Cerebellum. — Antagonism of the two Brains. 84
Chapter X. — Examination of the Opinions of Dr. Holland — Comparison of the Theory with a new Railway. — The Brain as a Double Organ. — Examples of the Double Mind. — Inferences. — Mode in which alone they can he drawn from Examination after death of the Insane. 100
Chapter XI. — Power of resting one Brain. — Castle Building. — Case of Delusion from Pride. — Another from Reverse of Fortune. — Equivocal Hallucination. — Case of a Painter. — Gentleman who saw his own self. — Lady who thought herself Mary Queen of Scots. 117
Chapter XII. — Dr. Abercrombie's Treatise on the Mental Powers. — Cases of Hallucination. — Cerebral disturbance without Disease. Morbid appearances on Dissection. — Hallucination confined to a single point. — Nature and Causes of Insanity. — Circumstances in which argument may be addressed to the Insane. 133
Chapter XIII. — Two Processes carried on together. — Counting Steps. — Objections to the Explanation. — The animal is created Dual at first. — Gradually joined. — Moral Responsibility. — Considerations on Phrenology. — Differences in Form and Texture at the base of the Brain. 148
Chapter XIV. — Phrenology continued. — Case of Spectral Illusions, and commencement of Moral Insanity, cured by Bleeding. Other Cases. — Mental Pictures by an Artist. — Inability to remember Faces. — Inability to distinguish Dreams from Realities. Robert Hall and Cowper. 163
Chapter XV. — Diffused Disorder affects only one side. — Death of Dr. Wollaston. — Imbecility compatible with high Moral qualities. — Story of the two Children. — Character changed by a Spicula of Bone. — Case of antagonist Convictions in a Clergyman. 176
Chapter XVI. — Case of Mr. Percival. — Reflections. — Diseased Volitions. 196
Chapter XVII. — Definition of Insanity. — Comparison of the Watch. — Dr. Conolly's Inquiry into the Indications of Insanity. Proofs of Double Mind in that Work. — Examples of rapid Transition of Thought. — Of two concurrent Trains of Thought. Forms of Mental disturbance. — Mr. Barlow. — Examples of two antagonist Volitions. — Moral and Medical objects of Dr. Conolly's work. for page 115 read 211
Chapter XVIII. — Apology for quoting largely from established Writers. — Long case of Moral Insanity from Dr. Pritchard. — Remarks thereon. — Danger of allowing large latitude to equivocal Responsibility — Progress of Depravity — Other Cases from Dr. Pritchard. — Dr. Hawkins — Early Inference drawn by myself from similar Cases. 244
CONTENTS. XI Chapter XIX. — Progress of Insanity. — Unimportance of the Mode in which it is manifested. — Varieties in the condition of the Blood. — Miracles. — False Perceptions. — Nature of Insanity. Catalepsy. - — Ganglionic System. — Rarity of Insanity. — Moral Reflections. 260
Chapter XX. — Difficulty of deciding the Point at which Insanity begins. — Mathematicians and Artists. — Increase of Mental Powers. — Madness of Volition. — Negligent Volition. — Power of controlling Hereditary tendency to Insanity. — Self-control of Lunatics. — Medical Jury. 277
Chapter XXI. — Distinction between Folly and Imbecility. — Possibility of cultivating an imperfect Brain into average Intellect. Education not to be hurried. — Frauds of Tutors. — Precocious Intellect. — Examples of Cruelty in forcing premature Development. — A peculiar form of Cerebral Irregularity. — Dr. Haslam on Sound Mind and Insanity. — Power of selecting or discarding a subject of Thought. — Associations. 295
Chapter XXII. — Hysteria. — Hypochondriasis. — Hydrophobia. 322
Chapter XXIII. — Difficulty of obtaining information of the early Pathological State. — Dr. Greding's Reports. — Impropriety of classing Idiots with the Insane.