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儿科急诊医学教材-Textbook of Paediatric Emergency Medicine

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标题(title):Textbook of Paediatric Emergency Medicine
儿科急诊医学教材
作者(author):Peter Cameron, Gary Browne, Biswadev Mitra, Stuart Dalziel, Simon Craig
出版社(publisher):Elsevier
大小(size):21 MB (22298694 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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It is now more than ten years since the publication of the first edition of Textbook of Paediatric Emergency Medicine and interest in this specialty continues to grow at a local and international level. Paediatric emergency medicine can be a challenging and difficult area for doctors. Children cannot always communicate their problems verbally, while parents are anxious and the possibility of a missed diagnosis is ever present. Although the principles in managing paediatric patients are the same as adults there are significant differences in patterns of illness and response. In addition, the therapies available vary widely between adult and paediatric practice.

Key Features
Textbook of Paediatric Emergency Medicine provides clear, concise and comprehensive coverage of all the major topics that present within paediatric emergency medicine. It offers a consensus approach to diagnosis and treatment, drawing on the latest evidence available. Short chapters with key point boxes allow for the quick and easy retrieval of information, essential when time is short.


Table of contents :
Title page......Page 2
Table of Contents......Page 4
Copyright......Page 57
Preface to third edition......Page 59
Preface to second edition......Page 61
Contributors......Page 63
Acknowledgements......Page 76
Section 1. Approach to the Paediatric Patient......Page 77
1.1. Approach to the paediatric patient......Page 78
Introduction......Page 79
Children with fever......Page 81
Evolving illness in children......Page 82
The environment......Page 83
Triage......Page 84
Front loading care......Page 85
The paediatric approach......Page 86
History......Page 88
Examination......Page 90
Gentle, distraction, painful last......Page 92
The parents......Page 97
Management of febrile children......Page 99
The role of the GP in paediatric emergency management......Page 103
Reflection on the Practice of Paediatric Emergency......Page 109
Introduction......Page 113
Cerebral palsy......Page 115
Cystic fibrosis......Page 122
The ex-premature infant......Page 128
Autism spectrum disorder......Page 130
Section 2. Resuscitation......Page 134
2.1. Paediatric cardiopulmonary arrest......Page 135
Aetiology......Page 136
Preventing cardiac arrest......Page 137
Differences compared to adults......Page 138
Ethics of paediatric resuscitation......Page 139
2.2. Paediatric basic life support......Page 146
Paediatric versus adult basic life support......Page 147
Basic life support sequence......Page 148
Relief of foreign body airway obstruction......Page 161
2.3. Paediatric advanced life support......Page 167
Diagnosing cardiac arrest......Page 168
Oxygen, ventilation and advanced airway support......Page 169
Ventilation......Page 171
Advanced airway support......Page 174
Laryngeal mask airway......Page 177
Management of the difficult airway......Page 178
Monitoring......Page 183
Vascular access......Page 184
Fluid therapy......Page 186
Management of pulseless arrhythmias......Page 191
Management of pulsatile dysrhythmias......Page 194
Post-resuscitation management......Page 197
Cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation......Page 199
Avoiding cardiac arrest during critical care management......Page 202
Asthma......Page 203
Drowning......Page 204
Toxicological emergencies......Page 205
Envenomation......Page 207
Marine envenomation......Page 208
Introduction......Page 210
Diagnosis and assessment......Page 212
Initial management......Page 214
Further management......Page 216
Introduction......Page 221
Background......Page 222
Definition......Page 223
Diagnosis......Page 224
Initial emergency management......Page 225
Disposition......Page 227
Section 3. Neonatal Emergencies......Page 228
Definition and introduction......Page 229
Common reasons for healthy neonates to present to the emergency department......Page 233
Summary......Page 236
Introduction......Page 237
Recurrent crying......Page 238
Acute crying......Page 240
Disposition......Page 241
Skin in the Neonatal Period......Page 243
Neonatal erythroderma......Page 245
Red scaly rashes......Page 247
Vesicles and blisters......Page 250
Pustular lesions......Page 255
Birthmarks......Page 257
Blue/purple lesions......Page 260
Vascular lesions in the neonatal period......Page 262
3.4. Acute neonatal emergencies......Page 264
Neonatal resuscitation......Page 265
Assessment of the neonate......Page 266
The neonate with vomiting......Page 274
The neonate with seizures......Page 278
The neonate with breathing difficulty......Page 281
The neonate with prolonged jaundice......Page 285
3.5. Neonatal resuscitation......Page 291
Aetiology and pathophysiology......Page 292
Preparation......Page 293
Ventilation......Page 294
Heart rate......Page 296
Colour......Page 297
Medications......Page 298
Specific resuscitation situations......Page 301
Post-resuscitation stabilisation......Page 303
Prognosis......Page 305
Section 4. Trauma in Children......Page 308
4.1. Introduction to paediatric trauma......Page 309
Prevention......Page 310
Succinct treatment (salvage)......Page 311
Primary survey......Page 312
Paediatric differences......Page 313
Other issues during initial stabilisation......Page 317
Secondary survey......Page 318
Orthopaedic trauma......Page 319
Rehabilitation......Page 321
4.2. Paediatric neurotrauma......Page 323
Pathophysiology......Page 324
Classification......Page 326
Assessment......Page 328
4.3. Spinal injury......Page 350
Developmental anatomy and physiology......Page 351
Initial assessment......Page 352
Spinal immobilisation......Page 353
Cervical spine injuries......Page 356
Thoracic and lumbar spine injuries......Page 367
Spinal cord injury......Page 372
Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality......Page 375
4.4. Thoracic injuries in childhood......Page 380
Initial approach in the emergency department......Page 381
Chest wall injury......Page 383
Pulmonary injury......Page 384
Tracheobronchial injuries......Page 388
Mediastinal injury......Page 389
Cardiac injuries......Page 390
Diaphragmatic injury......Page 391
Emergency department thoracotomy......Page 392
Introduction......Page 395
Examination......Page 397
Investigations......Page 400
General management......Page 403
Surgical issues......Page 404
Hollow viscus injuries......Page 405
Pancreatic and renal injuries......Page 406
Pelvic fractures......Page 407
Disposition......Page 409
Introduction......Page 412
Pathophysiology......Page 413
Classification......Page 414
History......Page 416
Examination......Page 417
Management......Page 418
Management of burns......Page 421
Electrical burns......Page 424
Chemical burns......Page 427
Introduction......Page 429
Phases of disaster response......Page 430
4.8. Wound management......Page 434
Introduction......Page 435
Classification of wounds......Page 436
Evaluation of the patient with a laceration......Page 437
Treatment of wounds......Page 440
Wound closure......Page 444
Post-wound-closure care......Page 456
Treatment of selected injuries......Page 458
Section 5. Cardiovascular......Page 467
Introduction......Page 468
History......Page 469
Physical examination......Page 470
Chest X-ray......Page 471
Pathological murmurs......Page 478
Disposition......Page 479
Introduction......Page 480
Immediate approach......Page 481
General approach......Page 482
Summary......Page 485
Aetiology......Page 486
Typical presentations......Page 487
Clinical......Page 490
Investigations within the emergency department......Page 493
Further investigations of syncope......Page 494
Summary......Page 495
5.4. Cyanotic heart disease and tetralogy of Fallot spells......Page 497
Cyanotic congenital heart disease......Page 498
Clinical features......Page 499
Investigations......Page 500
Management......Page 501
Tetralogy Spells......Page 502
Investigations......Page 503
Disposition......Page 504
Definition......Page 507
Clinical manifestations and investigations......Page 508
Management......Page 511
Introduction......Page 516
Undiagnosed congenital heart disease......Page 517
Complications/residua of congenital heart disease and its treatment......Page 525
Congenital heart disease and intercurrent illness......Page 528
Introduction......Page 530
Investigations......Page 535
Treatment......Page 537
Prevention and prophylaxis......Page 538
Introduction......Page 541
Microbiology......Page 542
Modified Duke criteria......Page 543
Investigations......Page 544
Treatment......Page 545
Prevention......Page 546
Introduction......Page 550
Pathophysiology......Page 551
Clinical features......Page 552
Differential diagnosis......Page 553
Investigations......Page 554
Treatment......Page 555
Prognosis......Page 557
5.10. Cardiac arrhythmias......Page 561
Normal conduction system......Page 562
The cardiac action potential......Page 563
Pathogenesis of arrhythmias......Page 567
General principles for arrhythmia management......Page 569
Role of ‘molecular autopsy’ in sudden unexplained cardiac death in the young......Page 578
Section 6. Respiratory......Page 581
Introduction......Page 582
History......Page 583
Common causes of acute stridor in children......Page 584
Common causes of chronic stridor in children......Page 586
Introduction......Page 590
Nasopharyngitis......Page 591
Stomatitis......Page 593
Pharyngitis/tonsillitis......Page 595
Introduction......Page 598
Upper airway foreign bodies......Page 599
Treatment......Page 600
Lower airway foreign body......Page 601
Prevention......Page 603
Introduction......Page 604
Presentation......Page 605
Investigations......Page 607
Differential diagnosis......Page 608
Treatment and disposition......Page 609
Prognosis......Page 611
Prevention......Page 612
Introduction......Page 614
Diagnosis of asthma......Page 615
Risk factors for mortality..
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