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二战以来的科学与美国外交-Science And American Foreign Relations Since World War II

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上传于 2020-03-02 6次下载 439次围观
文件编号:5363
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标题(title):Science And American Foreign Relations Since World War II
二战以来的科学与美国外交
作者(author):Greg Whitesides
出版社(publisher):Cambridge University Press
大小(size):3 MB (3454124 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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The sciences played a critical role in American foreign policy after World War II. From atomic energy and satellites to the green revolution, scientific advances were central to American diplomacy in the early Cold War, as the United States leveraged its scientific and technical pre-eminence to secure alliances and markets. The growth of applied research in the 1970s, exemplified by the biotech industry, led the United States to promote global intellectual property rights. Priorities shifted with the collapse of the Soviet Union, as attention turned to information technology and environmental sciences. Today, international relations take place within a scientific and technical framework, whether in the headlines on global warming and the war on terror or in the fine print of intellectual property rights. Science and American Foreign Relations since World War II provides the historical background necessary to understand the contemporary geopolitics of science.
Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half-title......Page 3
Series information......Page 4
Title page......Page 5
Copyright information......Page 6
Dedication......Page 7
Contents......Page 9
Figures......Page 13
Acknowledgments......Page 15
Abbreviations......Page 16
Introduction......Page 19
Scientific Universalism, Privilege, and National Service......Page 26
Applied Sciences, Commerce, and American Foreign Relations to World War I......Page 29
Science, World War I, and Interwar Modernity......Page 33
1 The Battle of the Laboratories......Page 39
Nation Bound......Page 41
Science and American Foreign Relations before World War II......Page 42
OSRD and the Manhattan Project......Page 46
The Atomic Bomb and Questions After......Page 50
At Loose Ends......Page 52
Postwar Institutions and Internationalism......Page 53
Atomic Energy and Espionage......Page 55
US-Soviet Conflict over the WHO......Page 58
The KR Affair and a Scientific Iron Curtain......Page 60
Rebound......Page 63
Science in Occupied Germany......Page 64
Science in Occupied Japan......Page 67
Science and European Reconstruction......Page 71
2 Science Contained......Page 77
Co-Option......Page 82
American Science in the Early Cold War......Page 84
McCarthyism and the Global Scientific Community......Page 87
Cooperation......Page 91
American Nuclear Diplomacy: Atoms for Peace......Page 92
The European Center for Nuclear Research (or CERN)......Page 96
The International Geophysical Year......Page 98
The Freedom of Space and Sputnik......Page 102
Competition......Page 105
Reorganization at Home......Page 106
American Diplomacy after Sputnik......Page 108
The Moon Landing......Page 112
The Legacy of Early Cold War Scientific Competition......Page 114
3 The Quiet War......Page 117
Modern Commitments......Page 120
The Background to Point Four......Page 121
The Domestic and International Response......Page 123
Point Four......Page 126
On Point......Page 130
Three Decades of Assistance to Iran......Page 131
An Evolving Mix of Programs, Goals, and Participants......Page 136
The Soviet Challenge in the Developing World......Page 140
The Alliance for Progress......Page 143
Demographic Containment......Page 147
Global Health and the Malaria Eradication Program......Page 148
The Mexican Agricultural Program, the FAO, and PL-480 Food Aid......Page 151
The Green Revolution in India, the Philippines, and Vietnam......Page 154
Population Controls......Page 157
Legacies of Cold War Scientific and Technical Assistance......Page 161
4 The Crossing Point......Page 163
Eruption......Page 167
The Environmental Movement, Vietnam War, and Collapse of Consensus......Page 168
The International Biological Program and Global Governance......Page 172
Market Biology......Page 176
The Legal and Scientific Background to Biotechnology......Page 177
Interferon, the Geopolitics of Overinvestment, and American Diplomacy......Page 178
The G-77, Genetics, and the ISTC......Page 181
Legalization and Tension with Allies and the Developing World......Page 184
5 Reorientation......Page 189
Heavenly Politics......Page 195
Satellite Communications and American Diplomacy......Page 196
Science and Détente with the Soviet Union......Page 200
Science and the Collapse of Détente......Page 204
Walking on Two Legs......Page 206
The Collapse of US-Chinese Scientific Relations, 1950-1972......Page 207
Scientific Exchanges and Revolutionary Resistance......Page 211
Markets and Anti-communist Resistance......Page 215
Scientific and Technical Relations after Normalization......Page 217
Petroscience......Page 220
US-Iranian Relations from the Embargo to the Revolution......Page 222
JECOR and American Assistance to Saudi Arabia......Page 224
US-Israeli Scientific Relations......Page 228
6 Globalization......Page 232
We Are Their Allies......Page 235
The G7 Science Initiative......Page 236
Space Station Freedom......Page 239
The Strategic Defense Initiative......Page 241
Scientific Relations with China, Saudi Arabia, and Israel......Page 243
Competition Rising......Page 247
Japan, the VLSI Initiative, and American Competitiveness......Page 248
Protecting American R&D: Export Controls and Intellectual Property Rights......Page 252
Soviet Fission......Page 257
Soviet Malaise, Chernobyl, and Collapse......Page 258
Re-Integrating Post-Soviet Science: The ISTC and ISS......Page 262
The Legacy of the Cold War on American Science and Foreign Relations......Page 267
7 The Fray......Page 270
National Philosophy......Page 279
US Climate Leadership: The Ozone Hole and Montreal Protocol......Page 281
Domestic Politics vs. Global Science: The Case of Global Warming......Page 284
The Human Genome Project and Convention on Biological Diversity......Page 289
International Tensions over Genetic Patents and Labels......Page 294
Genetic Engineering, Climate Change, and American Foreign Relations......Page 299
Pale Shadows......Page 301
The War on Terror and Iraqi Assistance......Page 303
US-Iranian Scientific Relations in the War on Terror......Page 307
UNESCO and Science Diplomacy in the Middle East......Page 313
8 The Laboratory of Diplomacy......Page 317
Appendix......Page 325
Congressional Publications......Page 331
National Institutions......Page 332
Selected Books......Page 333
Index......Page 347

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