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探索之旅:哲学史导论第四版-The Voyage of Discovery: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy 4th Edition (Cengage

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标题(title):The Voyage of Discovery: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy 4th Edition (Cengage Advantage Series)
探索之旅:哲学史导论第四版
作者(author):William F. Lawhead
出版社(publisher):Cengage Learning
大小(size):8 MB (8031353 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Highly praised for its clarity and rich exposition, this history of philosophy text illustrates philosophy as a process and not just a collection of opinions or conclusions. Rather than simply reporting the positions of a given philosopher, Lawhead's prose assists students in retracing the thinker's intellectual journey. Students are invited to engage with each philosopher's intellectual process, drawing connections with their own lives and cultures. Metaphors, analogies, vivid images, concrete examples, common experiences, and diagrams demonstrate the concrete relevance of abstract arguments and their practical implications for contemporary society. This fourth edition of VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY: A HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY features new historical profiles and/or works representing such philosophers as Plato, St. Thomas Aquinas, Simone de Beauvoir, and Martha Nussbaum, among others.

New to this 4th edition

In the Introduction, the author briefly discusses the absence of female philosophers in the historical accounts of philosophy.
Chapter 3, "The Sophists and Socrates," contains Socrates's argument with Thrasymacus concerning the nature of justice, from Plato's Republic.
Chapter 4, "Plato: The Search for Ultimate Truth and Reality," contains Plato's Allegory of the Cave from the Republic.
Chapter 6, "Classical Philosophy after Aristotle," contains a historical profile of Hypatia of Alexandria.
Chapter 10, "Philosophy and Theology in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries," now includes a historical profile of Hildegard of Bingen.


Table of contents :
Brief Contents......Page 8
Contents......Page 9
Preface......Page 21
Philosophy is Not an Optional Experience in Your Life!......Page 26
Part I: The Ancient Period......Page 37
The Role of the Poets......Page 39
The Birth of Western Philosophy......Page 42
Outline of Classical Philosophy......Page 43
The Milesian Philosophers......Page 44
Pythagoras: Mathematician and Mystic......Page 49
Xenophanes......Page 51
Heraclitus......Page 52
Paramenides and the Eleatics......Page 55
The Pluralists......Page 59
Democritus and the Atomists......Page 61
The Sophists......Page 65
Socrates (470-399 B.C.E.)......Page 69
Plato's Life: From Student to University President......Page 85
Theory of Knowledge: Reason versus Opinion......Page 86
Metaphysics: Shadows and Reality......Page 92
Moral Theory......Page 99
Political Theory......Page 103
Plato's Cosmology: Purpose and Chance......Page 105
Evaluation and Significance......Page 107
Aristotle's Life: Biologist, Tutor, and Philosopher......Page 110
Plato and Aristotle......Page 111
Theory of Knowledge: Finding Universals within Particulars......Page 112
Metaphysics: Understanding the Here-and-Now World......Page 116
Ethics: Keeping Things in Balance......Page 122
Evaluation and Significance......Page 127
The Transition to Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy......Page 130
Cynicism......Page 131
Epicureanism......Page 132
Stoicism......Page 136
Skepticism......Page 141
Academic Skepticism......Page 142
Plotinus and Neoplatonism......Page 144
Part II: The Middle Ages......Page 153
The Encounter between Greek and Christian Thought......Page 155
The Problem of Faith and Reason......Page 156
Challenging Heresies and Clarifying Orthodoxy......Page 160
The Future Agenda: A Christian Philosophical Synthesis......Page 163
Augustine's Life: From Passionate Pleasure to a Passionate Faith......Page 166
Augustine's Task: Understanding the Human Predicament......Page 168
Theory of Knowledge: The Truth is Within......Page 169
Metaphysics: God, Creation, Freedom, and Evil......Page 172
Philosophy of History and the State......Page 177
Evaluation and Significance......Page 180
A Survey of the Early Middle Ages......Page 183
The Byzantine and Islamic Empires......Page 184
An Overview of Medieval Philosophy......Page 185
Early Medieval Philosophy......Page 186
The Return to Darkness......Page 191
The Flowering of the Middle Ages......Page 193
The Rise of Scholasticism......Page 195
St. Anselm......Page 201
Peter Abelard......Page 203
Islamic Philosophers......Page 206
The Rediscovery of Aristotle in Europe......Page 210
The Ox That Roared......Page 214
Aquinas's Task: Integrating Philosophy and Faith......Page 215
The Nature of Knowledge: Reason Processing Experience......Page 218
Metaphysics: From the World to God......Page 219
Moral Philosophy: Human Nature and Divine Law......Page 226
Political Philosophy......Page 229
Evaluation and Significance......Page 230
Ch 12: The Unraveling of the Medieval Synthesis......Page 233
John Duns Scotus......Page 234
William of Ockham......Page 237
Changes in the Methods of Science......Page 243
Mysticism......Page 244
The Decline of Medieval Philosophy......Page 245
Part III: The Modern Period......Page 249
Renaissance Humanism......Page 251
The Protestant Reformation......Page 254
Social and Political Changes......Page 255
The Rise of Modern Science......Page 256
Philosophy in a New Key......Page 259
Francis Bacon......Page 263
Thomas Hobbes......Page 268
Descartess Life: World Traveler and Intellectual Explorer......Page 277
Descartes's Philosophical Agenda......Page 278
The Discovery of a Method......Page 279
Finding the Foundations of Knowledge......Page 280
Metaphysics: God, World, Minds, and Bodies......Page 287
Evaluation and Significance......Page 294
Spinoza's Life: Heresy, Lens Grinding, and Philosophy......Page 298
Task: To Achieve Freedom from Bondage......Page 299
Theory of Knowledge: Necessity Rules......Page 300
Metaphysics: God is the Only Reality......Page 301
Ethics: How to Be Free from Bondage......Page 306
Evaluation and Significance......Page 309
Leibniz's Life: Diplomat, Scientist, and Philosopher......Page 313
Method: Logic is the Key......Page 314
Theory of Knowledge: Unpacking the Truths of Reason......Page 315
Metaphysics: God as the Divine Programmer......Page 318
Evaluation and Significance......Page 325
The Impact of Newton's Science......Page 329
The Consequences for Religion......Page 332
The French Enlightenment......Page 334
Summary of the Enlightenment......Page 335
Physician, Political Adviser, and Philosopher......Page 337
Locke's Method for Analyzing Ideas......Page 338
Locke's Empirical Theory of Knowledge......Page 339
Metaphysics: The Reality behind the Appearances......Page 343
What is the Source of Moral Knowledge?......Page 344
An Empirical Philosophy of Religion......Page 345
A Political Theory for the Enlightenment......Page 347
Evaluation and Significance......Page 349
Philosopher, Educator, and Bishop......Page 356
Berkeley's Task: Battling Skepticism and Unbelief......Page 357
Berkeley's Reform of Empiricism......Page 358
Metaphysics: Reality as Mind and Ideas......Page 363
Evaluation and Significance......Page 368
Hume's Life: A Passion for Literary Fame......Page 371
Theory of Knowledge: The Gulf between Reason and the World......Page 372
Metaphysics: Skeptical Doubts about Reality......Page 375
Ethics: The Rule of the Passions-The Slavery of Reason......Page 382
Philosophy of Religion: Searching for What We Cannot Find......Page 384
Evaluation and Significance......Page 387
Kant's Life: A Methodical Man with Revolutionary Thoughts......Page 391
Task: Avoiding Dogmatism and Skepticism......Page 392
Theory of Knowledge: The Mind Makes Experience Possible......Page 393
Metaphysics: Bumping against the Limits of Reason......Page 401
Ethics as a Rational Discipline......Page 406
Evaluation and Significance......Page 411
Overcoming the Kantian Dualism......Page 414
German Idealism......Page 415
Romanticism......Page 418
The Importance of History......Page 420
Questions about Reason and Subjectivity......Page 423
Summary of the Nineteenth-Century Agenda......Page 425
Hegel's Life: From Average Student to World-Famous Philosopher......Page 427
Task: Fitting the Pieces of History and Reality Together......Page 428
Theory of Knowledge: Reason Reveals Reality......Page 429
Metaphysics: Reason Becoming Self-Conscious......Page 434
Ethics and Community Life......Page 437
Political Philosophy: The Glorification of the State......Page 439
Philosophy of History: Are We Pawns in History's Game?......Page 440
Evaluation and Significance......Page 443
Marx's Life: The Making of a Radical......Page 447
Marx's Background and Influences......Page 448
Task: Achieving an Earthly Salvation......Page 450
The Early Marx: The Tragedy of Human Alienation......Page 452
Historical Materialism......Page 454
Marx's Analysis of Capitalism......Page 461
Communism: The New Humanity and the New Society......Page 463
Evaluation and Significance......Page 464
Ch 26: Soren Kierkegaard: The Founder of Religious Existentialism......Page 467
The Stages in Kierkegaard's Life: From Passionate Playboy to Passionate Christian......Page 468
Task: To Make Life More Difficult......Page 469
Kierkegaard's Method: Indirect Communication......Page 470
Kierkegaard on Knowledge: Truth and Subjectivity......Page 471
Kierkegaard the Antimetaphysician: Existence, Time, Eternity......Page 474
Stages on Life's Way......Page 475
Christianity as the Paradox and the Absurd......Page 480
Evaluation and Significance......Page 481
Nietzsche's Life: The Lonely Prophet......Page 484
Nietzsche's Theory of Knowledge: Perspectives and Instincts......Page 485
Living without Metaphysical Hopes......Page 490
Moral Values and Personality Types......Page 492
Evaluation and Significance......Page 496
Ch 28: Nineteenth-Century Empiricism: Comte, B
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