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成人急诊医学教材-Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine

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标题(title):Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine
成人急诊医学教材
作者(author):Peter Cameron, Mark Little, Biswadev Mitra, Conor Deasy
出版社(publisher):Elsevier
大小(size):28 MB (29303075 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Since the first edition of Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine was published twenty years ago, there has been enormous change in the way emergency care is delivered. This has occurred both in countries where emergency medicine was originally developed and in those where its application was limited because of cost. Emergency medicine is now perceived as the cornerstone of response to acute illness regardless of resources.

This fully revised Fifth Edition provides clear and consistent coverage of this constantly evolving specialty. Building on the success of previous editions it covers all the major topics relevant to the practice of emergency medicine. The book will prove invaluable to professionals working in this setting – including nurse specialists and paramedics – who require concise, highly practical guidance, incorporating the latest best practice and evidence-based guidelines.

This edition comes with an enhanced electronic version with video and self-assessment content, providing a richer learning experience and making rapid reference easier than ever before, anytime, anywhere.

A comprehensive textbook of adult emergency medicine for trainee doctors - covers all the problems likely to present to a trainee in the emergency department.
Chapters are highly readable and concise – boxes summarise chapter key points and highlight controversial areas of treatment.
The content is highly practical, clinically orientated and thoroughly updated in all the core subjects
There have been major updates in topics such as airway, shock and sepsis where guidelines have changed rapidly.
The imaging chapters have also evolved with changing practice and improved technology, to be concordant with evidence on the importance of image interpretation by emergency clinicians.
There are major sections on other skills and issues of key importance to today’s advanced emergency medicine practitioner, such as staffing, overcrowding, triage, patient safety and quality measures.
In addition, difficult topics such as death and dying, the challenging patient, ethics, giving evidence and domestic violence are covered. Governance, training, research and organisational subjects such as disaster planning and response, humanitarian emergencies and refugee medicine are included to give the reader a framework to understand the complexity of managing major emergency systems of care.

Table of contents :
Front Cover......Page 1
IFC......Page 2
Textbook of ADULT EMERGENCY MEDICINE......Page 3
Textbook of ADULT EMERGENCY MEDICINE......Page 5
Copyright......Page 6
Contents......Page 7
Preface......Page 13
Contributors......Page 14
Acknowledgements......Page 22
Introduction......Page 23
Development of protocols......Page 25
Check for response and send for help......Page 26
Airway obstruction manoeuvres A number of manoeuvres have been proposed to clear the airway if it is completely obstructed by a .........Page 27
Basic life support summary......Page 28
International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation......Page 29
Manual external defibrillator......Page 30
Automated external defibrillators......Page 31
The 4Ts......Page 32
Amiodarone......Page 33
Arterial blood gases......Page 34
Prognosis for survival after cardiac arrest......Page 35
Non-invasive ventilation......Page 36
Apnoeic oxygenationThe continuous provision of oxygen through a patent airway in the form of high flow nasal oxygen is called ‘a.........Page 37
Ketamine......Page 38
Airway plan......Page 40
Front of neck access......Page 41
Airway trauma......Page 42
Audit and education......Page 43
Credentialing......Page 44
Pulmonary gas exchange......Page 46
Variable-performance oxygen delivery systems......Page 47
Face-masks (e.g. Hudson, Edinburgh, Medishield)......Page 48
Advantages......Page 49
Advantages......Page 50
Transfer of patients on oxygen therapy......Page 51
Controlled titration of oxygen dose in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease......Page 52
Hyperbaric oxygen treatment......Page 53
Oxygen toxicity......Page 54
Practical use of monitoring......Page 55
Blood pressure monitoring......Page 56
Invasive blood pressure measurement......Page 57
The pulse-induced contour cardiac output system of arterial waveform monitoring......Page 58
Future developments......Page 59
Pump dysfunction—cardiogenic (see Box 2.4.4)......Page 60
Clinical features......Page 61
Emergency department investigations......Page 62
Complications of fluid therapy......Page 63
Titration targets......Page 64
Management of specific shock syndromes......Page 65
Aetiology......Page 66
Emergency department therapy......Page 67
Definitions......Page 68
Apply vasopressors if patient is hypotensive during or after fluid resuscitation to maintain mean arterial pressure at or above .........Page 70
Corticosteroids......Page 71
Post-sepsis syndrome......Page 73
Collection and handling......Page 75
Pathophysiology of hypoxaemic respiratory failure......Page 76
Hypoventilation......Page 77
Acid–base disorders......Page 78
Venous blood gases......Page 81
Oxygenation after resuscitation......Page 82
Targeted temperature management......Page 84
Summary......Page 85
Aetiology......Page 86
Latex-induced anaphylaxis......Page 87
Fatal anaphylaxis......Page 88
Cutaneous and generalized allergic reactions......Page 89
Histamine......Page 90
H1 and H2 antihistamines......Page 91
Allergist/immunologist referral......Page 92
IgE skin testing, in vitro testing and challenge testing......Page 93
The trauma system—background......Page 95
Preparation......Page 96
Airway......Page 97
Exposure......Page 98
Trauma in developing countries......Page 99
Intracranial haematoma......Page 101
Primary survey......Page 102
Moderate/severe traumatic brain injury......Page 103
Disposition......Page 104
Associated injuries......Page 105
In-line protection of the spine......Page 106
Circulation......Page 107
Head and neck......Page 108
Sensory function......Page 109
HyperextensionAnterior widening of disc spaces, prevertebral swelling, avulsion of a vertebral body by the anterior longitudinal.........Page 110
Spinal shock......Page 111
Acute central cervical cord syndrome......Page 112
Documentation conventions......Page 113
Airway......Page 117
Imaging......Page 118
Orbital fractures......Page 119
Conclusion......Page 120
Abdominal examination......Page 122
Abdominal computed tomography......Page 123
Future directions......Page 124
Support of pulmonary function......Page 126
Fractured sternum......Page 127
Pneumothorax......Page 128
Thoracic aortic transection......Page 129
Conclusion......Page 130
Fractures......Page 131
History and examination......Page 133
Management......Page 134
Disposition......Page 135
Crush syndrome......Page 136
Immobilization......Page 137
The trauma series......Page 139
Head......Page 141
Classification of intracranial haemorrhage......Page 142
Cervical spine......Page 143
Thoraco-lumbar spine......Page 144
Chest trauma......Page 145
Thoracic computed tomography scan......Page 147
Visceral angiography and embolization......Page 148
Computed tomography scan of the pelvis......Page 149
Extremity injury......Page 151
Conclusion......Page 153
Respiratory......Page 154
X-rays......Page 159
Prevention......Page 160
Wound cleansing......Page 161
Wound-healing mechanisms......Page 163
Needles......Page 164
Basic suture technique......Page 165
Special sites and situations......Page 166
The ‘dog-ear’......Page 167
Dressings......Page 168
Disposal/removal......Page 170
Likely developments over the next 5 to 10 years......Page 172
Examination......Page 174
Pre-hospital......Page 175
Fluid Resuscitation7......Page 176
Disposition......Page 177
What is a massive transfusion......Page 178
Predicting massive transfusion......Page 180
Circulatory management......Page 181
Calcium......Page 182
Acute traumatic coagulopathy......Page 183
Future directions......Page 184
Fractures of the clavicle......Page 185
Fractures of the scapula......Page 186
Anterior dislocation......Page 187
Inferior dislocation (luxatio erecta)......Page 188
Treatment......Page 189
Disposition......Page 190
Treatment......Page 191
Clinical assessment......Page 192
Treatment and disposition......Page 193
Complications......Page 194
Monteggia fracture dislocation......Page 195
Colles fracture......Page 196
Scaphoid fracture......Page 197
TreatmentAll wrist dislocations require orthopaedic consultation and prompt reduction......Page 198
Examination......Page 199
Fingertip injuries......Page 200
Middle phalangeal injuries......Page 201
Prognosis......Page 202
Young and Resnik classification......Page 203
Haemorrhage......Page 204
Laparotomy with pelvic packing......Page 205
Management of isolated stable fractures......Page 206
Garden I:Incomplete, impacted or stress fractures that are stable. Trabeculae of the inferior neck are still intact and, althoug.........Page 207
ComplicationsSurvival is directly related to the patient’s age and pre-existing medical conditions......Page 208
Closed reduction......Page 209
Complications......Page 210
Reduction and splinting......Page 211
Complications......Page 212
Tibial plateau fracture......Page 213
Mechanism......Page 214
Management......Page 215
RadiologyX-rays may reveal avulsion of the posterior tibial spine but, as with ACL injuries, MRI demonstrates over 90% sensitivi.........Page 216
Management......Page 217
Clinical assessment......Page 218
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle)......Page 219
Maisonneuve fracture......Page 220
Ottawa ankle rules......Page 221
Open dislocations......Page 222
Management......Page 223
Mechanism and classification......Page 224
Management......Page 225
Radiology......Page 226
Management......Page 227
Laboratory tests......Page 228
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