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工厂流量测量和控制手册-Plant Flow Measurement and Control Handbook

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上传于 2020-02-28 42次下载 2143次围观
文件编号:2014
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标题(title):Plant Flow Measurement and Control Handbook
工厂流量测量和控制手册
作者(author):Swapan Basu
出版社(publisher):Elsevier
大小(size):68 MB (71636634 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Plant Flow Measurement and Control Handbook is a comprehensive reference source for practicing engineers in the field of instrumentation and controls. It covers many practical topics, such as installation, maintenance and potential issues, giving an overview of available techniques, along with recommendations for application. In addition, it covers available flow sensors, such as automation and control. The author brings his 35 years of experience in working in instrumentation and control within the industry to this title with a focus on fluid flow measurement, its importance in plant design and the appropriate control of processes.

The book provides a good balance between practical issues and theory and is fully supported with industry case studies and a high level of illustrations to assist learning. It is unique in its coverage of multiphase flow, solid flow, process connection to the plant, flow computation and control. Readers will not only further understand design, but they will also further comprehend integration tactics that can be applied to the plant through a step-by-step design process that goes from installation to operation.

Key Features
-Provides specification sheets, engineering drawings, calibration procedures and installation practices for each type of measurement
-Presents the correct flow meter that is suitable for a particular application
-Includes a selection table and step-by-step guide to help users make the best decision
-Cover examples and applications from engineering practice that will aid in understanding and application
Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Plant Flow Measurement and Control Handbook......Page 2
Copyright......Page 3
XI -
Flow Conditioning Computation and Control......Page 4
Foreword......Page 5
Index......Page 6
Acknowledgments......Page 8
1.0.0 INTRODUCTION......Page 9
1.0.1 DISCUSSIONS COVERED IN THIS BOOK......Page 11
1.1.0 Flow Measurement Basics......Page 13
1.1.1 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS AND ASSOCIATED TERMS FOR FLOW METERS......Page 16
1.1.2 PHYSICS ON FLUID PROPERTIES......Page 17
1.2.1 IMPORTANT TERMS RELATED TO INSTRUMENTATION......Page 27
1.2.2 TERMS RELATED TO THE PROCESS......Page 30
2.0.0 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS......Page 39
2.1.2 BERNOULLI'S EQUATION FOR FLOW CALCULATIONS......Page 42
2.1.3 FLOW EQUATION IN TERMS OF PIPE GEOMETRY......Page 43
2.1.4 DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT......Page 44
2.1.6 RELATED DISCUSSION TERMS......Page 45
2.1.8 MEASUREMENT AND FLOW COMPUTATION......Page 46
2.1.9 PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION FOR FLOW......Page 49
3.0.0 FLOW MEASUREMENT TYPES AND PRINCIPLES......Page 50
3.1.0 Fluid Flow Measurement Types and Principles......Page 51
3.1.1 INFERENTIAL FLOW METER TYPES AND PRINCIPLES......Page 52
3.1.2 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT FLOW METER TYPES AND PRINCIPLES......Page 60
3.1.3 VELOCITY AND FORCE FLOW METER TYPES AND PRINCIPLES......Page 65
3.1.4 MASS FLOW METER TYPES AND PRINCIPLES......Page 79
3.1.5 FLUID FLOW MEASUREMENT IN AN OPEN CHANNEL......Page 85
3.2.0 Solid Flow Measurement Types and Principles......Page 91
3.2.1 SOLID FLOW METERS BASED ON FORCE AND DEFLECTION PRINCIPLES......Page 92
3.2.2 SOLID FLOW METERS BASED ON LOAD SPEED/TIME PRINCIPLES......Page 97
3.2.3 NONCONTACT TYPE SOLID FLOW MEASUREMENT......Page 102
3.3.1 MAJOR CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF SLURRY FLOW AND ITS EFFECTS......Page 105
3.3.2 FLOW METER TYPES FOR SLURRY FLOW......Page 106
3.4.0 Multiphase Flow Measurement Types and Principles......Page 107
3.4.1 APPROACHES FOR MULTIPHASE FLOW METERING......Page 108
3.4.2 TYPES OF METERING PHILOSOPHIES......Page 109
3.4.3 MFM TECHNOLOGIES......Page 112
4.0.0 SELECTION OF FLOW METERS......Page 117
4.1.0 General Discussions on the Flow Meter Selection Process (Closed Pipe)......Page 119
4.2.1 PROCESS ISSUES FOR FLOW METER SELECTION......Page 121
4.2.2 SELECTION PROCESS RELATED TO THE FLOW METER......Page 124
4.4.0 Cost and Approval Considerations for Flow Meter Selection......Page 129
4.5.0 Flow Meter Selection Matrix......Page 130
5.0.0 DISCUSSIONS ON PERMANENT PRESSURE LOSS AND ALLIED ISSUES......Page 133
6.1.0 Principles and Good Practices for Installations......Page 135
6.2.0 Principles and Good Practices for Calibrations......Page 138
6.2.1 FLOW METER CALIBRATION ISSUES......Page 140
7.0.0 CRITICAL OR SONIC NOZZLE......Page 142
7.3.0 Functional Details of Sonic Flow Nozzles......Page 143
8.1.1 AEROFOIL WORKING PRINCIPLES......Page 144
8.2.0 British Thermal Unit Measurement......Page 145
8.2.2 SENSORS USED IN BRITISH THERMAL UNIT MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS......Page 146
8.3.1 THEORY OF OPERATION......Page 148
8.3.3 DISCUSSIONS ON CROSS-CORRELATION MEASUREMENT......Page 151
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS......Page 152
REFERENCES......Page 153
FURTHER READING......Page 156
1.0.0 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS: GENERAL DISCUSSIONS......Page 340
1.1.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AS PER ISO 5167-PART 1......Page 158
1.1.2 GENERAL DISCUSSIONS ON INSTALLATION (ISO 5167-1:2003)......Page 159
1.1.3 The Étoile Straightener......Page 160
1.2.2 Types of Corrosion Process......Page 1137
1.3.0 Volume and Mass Conversion Factor......Page 161
2.3.0 Pipe Flow of Slurries......Page 162
2.2.0 Tapping Point Installations and Mounting......Page 169
2.5.0 Specification of Hall Sensors......Page 939
3.2.3 Operation Part of IEC 61511......Page 171
2.2.3 ORIFICE PLATE MOUNTING......Page 172
2.2.4 IMPULSE LINE INSTALLATION......Page 175
2.2.5 UPSTREAM/DOWNSTREAM STRAIGHT PIPE REQUIREMENTS......Page 179
2.2.6 PERMANENT PRESSURE LOSS......Page 180
3.1.0 Solid Flow Characteristic Features and Essential Properties......Page 1134
2.3.2 Slurry Flow in a Vertical Pipe......Page 181
2.5.2 Straight Length Requirement and Flow Conditioners......Page 182
2.4.1 LIQUID FLOW METER CALIBRATION: GENERAL DISCUSSION......Page 183
2.4.3 ORIFICE PLATE CALIBRATION......Page 186
3.2.1 Elbow and PCHB for Flow......Page 188
2.5.3 INTEGRAL ORIFICE ASSEMBLY......Page 191
2.5.4 SENIOR ORIFICE ASSEMBLY......Page 192
2.4.0 Material Selection, Sizing, and Flow Range......Page 416
5.3.1 Features of Digital Local Flow Meters......Page 955
3.0.0 FLOW NOZZLE......Page 195
3.1.0 Description of the Construction Details and Features: Flow Nozzles......Page 196
3.3.0 Rectangular Weirs......Page 199
3.2.1 TAPPING STYLES......Page 200
3.2.2 TAPPING DIAMETER AND SOURCE POINT......Page 201
3.2.3 FLOW NOZZLE MOUNTING......Page 202
3.2.4 Major Application Areas......Page 444
3.3.0 Discussions on ISO 5167-3:2003 Standard......Page 206
4.4.4 EMFMs in Paper Plants......Page 662
7.2.2 Installation Requirements of Paddle Type Flow Switches......Page 208
3.5.0 Specification/Data Sheet......Page 209
4.7.2 PULL CHORD SWITCH......Page 782
3.6.1 SONIC FLOW PRINCIPLES......Page 211
3.4.0 Meter Size, Selection, and Performance......Page 213
4.2.1 TAPPING DETAILS......Page 216
4.2.4 STRAIGHT LENGTH REQUIREMENTS......Page 217
4.2.5 PERMANENT PRESSURE LOSS......Page 218
4.3.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION......Page 220
4.5.0 Specification/Data Sheet for Venturi Tube......Page 221
5.1.1 Description of Direct-Flow Gages......Page 950
5.1.1 FLOW ELEMENT DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS......Page 224
5.2.0 Dall Tube......Page 225
5.2.2 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES AND APPLICATIONS OF DALL TUBES......Page 226
6.0.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PITOT TUBES......Page 227
6.0.2 FLOW CALCULATIONS......Page 228
5.0.0 Wedge Flow Element......Page 229
6.1.4 PITOT TUBE SPECIFICATIONS......Page 231
6.2.1 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS......Page 232
6.2.3 MOUNTING AND INSTALLATION......Page 234
6.2.4 SPECIFICATION OF AN AVERAGE PITOT......Page 235
6.2.5 AIR AND FLUE GAS MEASUREMENT BY AN AVERAGE PITOT TUBE......Page 236
6.3.0 Krell Bar......Page 237
7.1.1 DESCRIPTION......Page 238
7.2.0 Flow Element Calculation......Page 240
7.3.3 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND COMPENSATION......Page 241
7.4.3 TRANSMITTER CONNECTION......Page 242
7.5.2 SPECIFIC DATA......Page 244
8.1.1 WORKING PRINCIPLES......Page 246
8.1.2 SIZING AND FLOW EQUATION......Page 247
8.1.4 DESIGN DETAILS......Page 248
8.1.5 MOUNTING AND INSTALLATION......Page 249
8.1.7 SPECIFIC DATA......Page 251
8.2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF ELBOW TAPPING FLOW ELEMENTS......Page 252
9.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF A ROTAMETER......Page 253
9.1.2 ROTAMETER FLOW SIZING......Page 255
9.1.4 ROTAMETER TYPES......Page 256
9.1.5 ROTAMETER DESIGN DETAILS......Page 258
9.2.0 Other Variable Area Flow Meters......Page 260
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS......Page 262
FURTHER READING......Page 263
APPENDIX
VI - Enclosure Electrical Protection......Page 1136
1.0.0 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL DISCUSSION......Page 265
1.0.1 APPROACHES FOR OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT......Page 266
2.3.2 MEASUREMENT ACCURACY......Page 272
1.0.3 SELECTION FOR OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW MEASUREMENT......Page 276
2.4.2 FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES......Page 278
1.1.0 Fluid Mechanics of Open Channels......Page 279
2.4.2 Applications in Flow Measurement......Page 938
1.1.2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY......Page 280
1.1.3 MOMENTUM FORCE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION......Page 281
2.2.1 Homogeneous Flow......Page 282
1.1.6 FRICTION EQUATIONS AND ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT......Page 283
1.1.7 SPECIFIC ENERGY......Page 285
1.2.0 Properties of Open Channels......Page 288
2.0.0 DISCUSSIONS ON METER TYPES USED IN CUSTODY TRANSFER......Page 289
2.1.2 EXPLANATION OF FLUME GEOMETRY......Page 290
2.1.4 SITE CONDITIONS AND ASSOCIATED TECHNICAL ISSUES......Page 291
2.1.5 SUBMERGENCE AND MODULAR FLOW......Page 292
3.1.2 Positive Displacement Meter Complex Flow Measurement......Page 647
2.1.7 HEAD SENSING TECHNOLOGY......Page 293
2.2.0 Venturi Flume......Page 294
2.2.1 DIFFERENT VENTURI FLUMES......Page 295
2.3.0 Parshall Flume......Page 297
3.1.5 Ultrasonic Meter for Complex and Slurry Flow Measurement......Page 652
2.3.2 PARSHALL FLUME INSTALLATION DISCUSSIONS......Page 300
2.4.0 H Flu
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