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尼康曝光和测光的秘密-Secrets to Exposure and Metering for Nikon

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上传于 2020-02-28 3次下载 5190次围观
文件编号:1939
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标题(title):Secrets to Exposure and Metering for Nikon
尼康曝光和测光的秘密
作者(author):Steve Perry
出版社(publisher):
大小(size):109 MB (114058091 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Great book for learning about Exposure and Metering when using Nikon DSLR
Table of contents :
Feedback......Page 10
Navigation......Page 11
Introduction......Page 12
Exposure 101......Page 17
Shutter Speed......Page 21
Aperture and F/Stop......Page 22
ISO......Page 23
Reciprocity......Page 28
Shutter Speed......Page 42
Mechanical Shutter Operation......Page 45
Electronic Shutter Operation......Page 47
Shutter Speed And Motion......Page 51
Rate Of Travel/Motion......Page 61
Pixel Density......Page 74
Subject Motion......Page 82
Camera Motion......Page 87
Hand Holding Technique......Page 91
VR Assistance......Page 93
Shooting In Bursts......Page 94
Camera Support......Page 97
Showing Motion......Page 101
Tips For Lowering Your Shutter Speed......Page 112
Slow Shutter Speeds And Action (Panning)......Page 118
Does It Matter?......Page 123
Aperture and F/Stop......Page 124
How Your Lens Aperture Works......Page 126
Mechanical Aperture Activation......Page 127
Electronic Aperture Activation......Page 129
Depth Of Field......Page 130
Changing Depth Of Field......Page 133
Depth Of Field Distribution......Page 134
Circle of Confusion......Page 137
Depth Of Field Factor #1 - F/Stop......Page 148
Depth Of Field Factor #2 - Distance......Page 156
Depth Of Field Factor #3 - Focal Length......Page 160
Depth Of Field Factor #4 - Sensor Size......Page 169
Choosing The Optimum DoF......Page 181
Shallow Depth Of Field......Page 182
Not Enough DoF? Keep ‘Em On The Same Focal Plane......Page 193
Mid-Range Depth Of Field......Page 196
Using The “Sweet Spot”......Page 201
The “Fudge Factor”......Page 204
Deep Depth Of Field......Page 205
Techniques For Achieving Deep DoF......Page 209
Diffraction......Page 210
Understanding ISO......Page 217
How Your Camera’s Sensor Collects Light......Page 218
Signal To Noise Ratio......Page 222
Sources Of Noise......Page 223
Shot Noise (also called Photon Noise)......Page 224
Dark Current Noise......Page 227
How ISO And Noise Play Together......Page 228
Application......Page 231
Advanced Exposure Considerations......Page 233
Exposure Value (EV)......Page 235
Dynamic Range......Page 244
What Is The Dynamic Range Of Your Sensor?......Page 245
Dynamic Range And ISO......Page 249
Crop Vs Full Frame Dynamic Range......Page 259
Bit Depth......Page 261
The Dynamic Range Tie-In......Page 265
RAW vs. JPEG......Page 270
JPEG Advantages......Page 271
Why Shoot RAW At All?......Page 272
The RAW vs. JPEG Showdown......Page 276
Image File Options - The Photo Shooting Menu......Page 286
High ISO Noise Reduction......Page 287
Image Quality......Page 289
Image Size......Page 292
NEF (RAW) Recording......Page 295
Autoexposure Modes......Page 299
Idiot Modes......Page 302
Auto ISO......Page 303
Auto ISO Setup......Page 305
The ISO Sensitivity Setting......Page 306
Auto ISO Sensitivity Control......Page 307
Maximum Sensitivity......Page 308
Minimum Shutter Speed......Page 312
Maximum Sensitivity With Flash......Page 316
Hi ISO Command Dial Access......Page 317
Selecting An Exposure Mode......Page 318
Program Mode (P)......Page 321
Program Mode + Auto ISO......Page 323
Shutter Priority (S)......Page 326
Shutter Priority + Auto ISO......Page 330
Aperture Priority (A)......Page 332
Auto ISO with Aperture Priority......Page 338
Manual + Auto ISO......Page 339
The Dangers......Page 347
Full Manual Mode......Page 350
How I Set Manual Exposure......Page 355
Metering Basics......Page 367
Tonalities And Varying Brightness Levels......Page 383
Metering And Autofocus......Page 386
Metering Patterns......Page 388
Changing Metering Modes......Page 390
Center-weighted Metering......Page 393
Spot Metering......Page 398
Matrix Metering......Page 409
Thinking Like Your Matrix Meter......Page 413
Highlight Weighted Metering......Page 424
Which Is Best?......Page 430
Assign A Metering Mode To Your Pv or Fn Button......Page 433
Pre-2016 Bodies (D4, D4s, D800, D810, D750, D6xx, D7000, D7100 etc.)......Page 434
Post 2016 Bodies - D5, D500, D850, D7500 and Z series......Page 435
Outsmart Your Meter......Page 436
Exposure Compensation......Page 438
What’s Adjusted?......Page 443
Warnings About Exposure Compensation......Page 445
Exposure Lock......Page 448
Setting Up AE-L - D3xxx and D5xxx Series......Page 452
Setting Up AE-L Only - D3xxx series......Page 453
Setting Up AE-L Only - D5xxx series:......Page 454
AE-L Setup - All Other Nikon Bodies......Page 455
AE Lock Options (all bodies)......Page 458
Modify Your Exposure In Manual Mode......Page 459
Histograms & Blinkies......Page 467
Histograms - The Key To Determining A “Correct” Exposure......Page 468
The Histogram Lies To RAW Shooters......Page 478
Viewing Your Histogram......Page 480
Histogram Examples......Page 482
Blinkies......Page 488
Metering Tips And Tricks......Page 493
Sunny 16......Page 494
Meter For The Tonality You Want To Render......Page 496
Meter Your Hand......Page 499
Meter The Grass......Page 501
Mixed Snow Conditions......Page 502
Fog......Page 505
Sunrise/Sunsets......Page 508
Backlight and Silhouettes......Page 510
Active D-Lighting......Page 519
Bracketing and Auto Bracketing......Page 525
Auto bracketing - DSLRs......Page 529
Auto Bracketing - Z Series......Page 537
Advanced Exposure Techniques......Page 543
Leveraging ISO invariance......Page 544
Test Your ISO invariance......Page 550
Extended ISO - Hi And Lo ISO Settings......Page 566
Expose To The Right (ETTR)......Page 567
How To Shoot ETTR......Page 577
ETTR - Beyond Base ISO......Page 584
High Dynamic Range Photography (HDR)......Page 593
Shooting An HDR Image Set......Page 596
HDR With Lightroom......Page 598
Customizing Your Metering System......Page 606
Metering/exposure......Page 607
ISO Sensitivity Step Value......Page 608
EV Steps For Exposure Control......Page 610
Easy Exposure Compensation......Page 612
Fine Tune Optimal Exposure......Page 615
Other Custom Setting Options......Page 618
Shutter-release button AE-L (Auto Exposure Lock)......Page 619
Standby Timer......Page 622
ISO display OR ISO Display and adjustment......Page 623
Easy ISO......Page 626
Exposure Delay Mode......Page 628
Electronic Front Curtain Shutter......Page 630
Reassign The Movie Record Button To ISO......Page 633
Bonus Chapter - Night Shooting Basics......Page 635
2. Use full Manual mode......Page 636
4. Use Fast Glass......Page 637
5. Use Long Exposure Noise Reduction - Sometimes.......Page 638
7. Shoot In Raw......Page 641
9. Fight Dew......Page 642
Focusing The Camera At Night......Page 643
Lights......Page 644
Laser Pointer......Page 645
Flashlight......Page 646
Exposure - Finally!......Page 648
The Moon......Page 650
General Guidelines For Stars......Page 653
The Milky Way......Page 659
Star Trails......Page 662
Final Thoughts......Page 676

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