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热能系统:设计与分析-Thermal Energy Systems: Design and Analysis

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上传于 2020-02-28 40次下载 3035次围观
文件编号:1846
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标题(title):Thermal Energy Systems: Design and Analysis
热能系统:设计与分析
作者(author):Steven G Penoncello
出版社(publisher):CRC Press
大小(size):79 MB (82493431 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Thermal Energy Systems: Design and Analysis, Second Edition presents basic concepts for simulation and optimization, and introduces simulation and optimization techniques for system modeling. This text addresses engineering economy, optimization, hydraulic systems, energy systems, and system simulation. Computer modeling is presented, and a companion website provides specific coverage of EES and Excel in thermal-fluid design. Assuming prior coursework in basic thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, this fully updated and improved text will guide students in Mechanical and Chemical Engineering as they apply their knowledge to systems analysis and design, and to capstone design project work.
Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half Title......Page 2
Title Page......Page 4
Copyright Page......Page 5
Table of Contents......Page 6
Preface to the Second Edition
......Page 14
Acknowledgments
......Page 18
Author
......Page 20
1.1 Thermal Energy Systems Design and Analysis
......Page 22
1.2.2 REFPROP
......Page 23
1.3 Thermal Energy System Topics
......Page 24
1.4 Units and Unit Systems
......Page 25
1.5 Properties of Working Fluids in Thermal Energy Systems
......Page 27
1.5.1 Thermodynamic Properties
......Page 28
1.5.1.1 Thermodynamic Properties in the Two-Phase Region
......Page 29
1.5.1.2 Important Thermodynamic Property Relationships
......Page 30
1.5.2.1 The Real Fluid Model
......Page 31
1.5.2.2 The Incompressible Substance Model
......Page 32
1.5.2.3 Estimation of Liquid Properties
......Page 34
1.5.2.4 The Ideal Gas Model
......Page 37
1.5.3.1 Dynamic Viscosity
......Page 43
1.5.3.2 Kinematic Viscosity
......Page 44
1.5.3.3 Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
......Page 45
1.5.3.4 Thermal Conductivity
......Page 46
1.6 Engineering Design and Analysis
......Page 47
1.6.1 Workable Designs
......Page 48
1.6.2 Optimum Designs
......Page 50
1.6.3 Engineering Design and Environmental Impact
......Page 51
Units and Unit Systems
......Page 52
Properties of Working Fluids
......Page 54
Engineering Design
......Page 56
2.2 Engineering Economics Nomenclature
......Page 62
2.3 The Cash Flow Diagram
......Page 63
2.4 The Time Value of Money
......Page 64
2.4.1 Future Value of a Present Sum: The Single Payment Compound Amount Factor
......Page 65
2.4.3 Future Value of a Uniform Series: The Compound Amount Factor
......Page 67
2.4.5 Present Value of a Uniform Series: The Uniform Series Present Worth Factor
......Page 69
2.4.7 Present Value of a Uniform Linearly Increasing Series—The Gradient Present Worth Factor
......Page 70
2.4.8 Summary of Interest Factors
......Page 71
2.6 Time Value of Money Examples
......Page 72
2.7 Using Software to Calculate Interest Factors
......Page 76
2.8 Economic Decision Making
......Page 77
2.8.1 Present Worth Analysis
......Page 78
2.8.2 Annual Cost Analysis
......Page 82
2.9.1 After-Tax Cash Flow
......Page 85
2.9.3 Sum of the Years’ Digits (SYD)
......Page 86
Time Value of Money
......Page 91
Economic Decision Making
......Page 94
Depreciation and Taxes
......Page 97
3.2 Nomenclature
......Page 100
3.3 Analysis Procedure
......Page 101
3.4.1 The Generalized Balance Law
......Page 102
3.5 Conservation of Mass
......Page 103
3.6 Conservation of Energy
......Page 107
3.7 The Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)
......Page 115
3.7.1 The Reversible and Adiabatic Process
......Page 117
3.7.2.1 Turbines
......Page 118
3.7.2.2 Compressors, Pumps, and Fans
......Page 119
3.7.2.3 Nozzles
......Page 120
3.7.2.4 Diffusers
......Page 121
3.7.3 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness
......Page 124
3.7.3.1 Effectiveness of a Counter Flow Heat Exchanger
......Page 130
3.7.3.2 Effectiveness of a Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
......Page 134
3.7.3.3 Significance of the Pinch Point Temperature Difference and Effectiveness
......Page 136
3.8 The Exergy Balance—The Combined Law
......Page 137
3.8.1 What Is Exergy?
......Page 138
3.8.2 The Exergy Balance
......Page 139
3.8.3 Exergy Accounting and Exergy Flow Diagrams
......Page 143
3.8.4.3 Heat Exchangers
......Page 144
3.9 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy Cycles
......Page 147
3.9.1 Cycle Energy Performance Parameters
......Page 148
3.9.1.1 Maximum Thermal Efficiency of a Cycle
......Page 150
3.9.2.1 Power Cycles
......Page 153
3.9.2.2 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles
......Page 155
3.9.2.3 Significance of the Exergetic Cycle Efficiency
......Page 156
3.9.2.4 The Energy/Exergy Conundrum
......Page 157
3.10 Analysis of Thermal Energy Systems
......Page 158
3.10.1 Analysis of an Engine and Radiator System
......Page 159
3.10.2 Analysis of a Brine Chilling System for Ice Rink Manufacture
......Page 164
3.10.3 Analysis of a Gas Turbine System for Power Delivery
......Page 170
Conservation and Balance Laws
......Page 178
Energy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy Cycles
......Page 184
Analysis of Thermal Energy Systems
......Page 186
4.2 Piping and Tubing Standards
......Page 196
4.3 Fluid Flow Fundamentals
......Page 198
4.3.1 Head Loss due to Friction in Pipes and Tubes
......Page 200
4.4 Valves and Fittings
......Page 211
4.4.1 The Hooper 2K Method
......Page 213
4.4.2 The Darby 3K Method
......Page 216
4.4.4 Check Valves
......Page 219
4.4.5 Branch Fittings—Tees and Wyes
......Page 221
4.5 Design and Analysis of Pipe Networks
......Page 225
4.5.1 Parallel Pipe Networks
......Page 229
4.6 Economic Pipe Diameter
......Page 234
4.6.2 Determination of the Economic Diameter
......Page 235
4.6.3 Cost Curves
......Page 242
4.6.4 Economic Velocity Range
......Page 244
4.7.2 Dynamic Pump Operation
......Page 246
4.7.2.1 Dynamic Pump Performance
......Page 248
4.7.3 Manufacturer’s Pump Curves
......Page 251
4.7.4.1 System Curve for a Two-Tank System Open to the Atmosphere
......Page 252
4.7.4.2 System Curve for a Closed-Loop System
......Page 255
4.7.5 Pump Selection
......Page 256
4.7.6 Cavitation and the Net Positive Suction Head
......Page 261
4.7.6.1 Calculating the NPSHa
......Page 262
4.7.7 Series and Parallel Pump Configurations
......Page 266
4.7.8 Affinity Laws
......Page 270
4.8 Design Practices for Pump/Pipe Systems
......Page 274
4.8.4 Pump Placement and Flow Control
......Page 275
4.8.7 Other Sources for Design Practices
......Page 276
Piping and Tubing Standards
......Page 277
Friction Calculations in Straight Pipes and Tubes
......Page 278
Valves and Fittings
......Page 280
Design and Analysis of Pipe Networks
......Page 281
Economic Pipe Diameter
......Page 286
Dynamic Pump Performance
......Page 287
Series and Parallel Pump Configurations
......Page 290
Cavitation and the Net Positive Suction Head
......Page 292
Affinity Laws
......Page 294
5.2 Heat Transfer Analysis of Heat Exchangers
......Page 298
5.2.1 Thermal Resistance
......Page 300
5.2.2 The Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
......Page 305
5.2.2.1 Entry Length
......Page 306
5.2.2.3 Forced Internal Laminar Flow—Combined Entry
......Page 307
5.2.2.5 Forced Internal Turbulent Flow
......Page 308
5.4 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
......Page 310
5.5.1 Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
......Page 315
5.5.2 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
......Page 316
5.5.4 Cross Flow Heat Exchanger
......Page 318
5.6 Design and Analysis of Heat Exchangers
......Page 319
5.6.1 A Heat Exchanger Design Problem
......Page 320
5.6.3 Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Analysis
......Page 321
5.6.3.1 Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference
......Page 322
5.6.4 The LMTD Heat Exchanger Model
......Page 327
5.6.5 The Effectiveness-NTU Heat Exchanger Model
......Page 329
5.7.1 The Counter Flow Regenerative Heat Exchanger
......Page 336
5.7.2 Heat Exchangers with Phase Change Fluids: Boilers, Evaporators, and Condensers
......Page 341
5.8.1 Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Diameters
......Page 348
5.8.3 Hydraulic Analysis of the Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
......Page 351
5.8.3.1 Hydraulic Consequences of Fouling
......Page 352
5.8.3.3 Pressure Drop through the Annulus
......Page 354
5.8.5 Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Design Considerations
......Page 361
5.8.6 Computer Software for Design and Analysis of Heat Exchangers
......Page 362
5.8.7.1 Fluid Properties
......Page 363
5.8.7.2 Fluid Placement
......Page 364
5.8.7.3 Determination of Pipe and/or Tube Sizes
......Page 365
5.8.7.9 Calculation of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
......Page 367
5.8.7.10 Application of the Heat Exchanger Model
......Page 368
5.8.7.11 Heat Exchanger Length
......Page 369
5.8.7.13 Preliminary Design Specifications of the Heat Exchanger
......Page 370
5.8.8.3 Calculation of Annulus Diameters
......Page 371
5.8.8.9 Calculation of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
......Page 372
5.9 Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis
......Page 373
5.9.2 Tube Side Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
......Page 378
5.9.3 Shell Side Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
......Page 379
5.9.4.3 General Considerations
......Page 382
5.9.6.1 Initial Guess of the Fluid Outlet Temperatures
......Page 383
5.9.6.3 Shell and Tube Parameters
......Page 384
5.9.6.6 Calculation of Friction Factors
......Page 385
5.9.6.10 Calculation of the UA Values
......Page 386
5.9.6.11 Application of the Heat Exchanger Model
......Page 387
5.9.6.12 Calculation of Pressure Drops
......Page 388
5.9.6.13 Design and Analysis Checks
......Page 389
5.10 Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis
......Page 390
5.10.1 Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger Dimensions
......Page 392
5.10.2 Thermal Performance of a Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers
......Page 394
5.10.3 Hydraulic Performance of a Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger
......Page 396
5.10.4 Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger Analysis
......Page 397
5.10.4.2 Fluid Properties
......Page 398
5.10.4.5 Calculation of Reynolds Numbers
......Page 399
5.10.4.9 Calculation of the UA Values
......Page 400
5.10.4.10 Applica
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