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在线保护儿童?社交媒体公司的网络欺凌政策-Protecting Children Online? Cyberbullying Policies Of Social Media Companies

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上传于 2020-03-06 10次下载 1581次围观
文件编号:11042
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标题(title):Protecting Children Online? Cyberbullying Policies Of Social Media Companies
在线保护儿童?社交媒体公司的网络欺凌政策
作者(author):Tijana Milosevic, Sonia Livingstone
出版社(publisher):The MIT Press
大小(size):4 MB (3932108 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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A critical examination of efforts by social media companies—including Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram—to rein in cyberbullying by young users. High-profile cyberbullying cases often trigger exaggerated public concern about children's use of social media. Large companies like Facebook respond by pointing to their existing anti-bullying mechanisms or coordinate with nongovernmental organizations to organize anti-cyberbullying efforts. Do these attempts at self-regulation work? In this book, Tijana Milosevic examines the effectiveness of efforts by social media companies—including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Snapchat, and Instagram—to rein in cyberbullying by young users. Milosevic analyzes the anti-bullying policies of fourteen major social media companies, as recorded in companies' corporate documents, draws on interviews with company representatives and e-safety experts, and details the roles of nongovernmental organizations examining their ability to provide critical independent advice. She draws attention to lack of transparency in how companies handle bullying cases, emphasizing the need for a continuous independent evaluation of effectiveness of companies' mechanisms, especially from children's perspective. Milosevic argues that cyberbullying should be viewed in the context of children's rights and as part of the larger social problem of the culture of humiliation. Milosevic looks into five digital bullying cases related to suicides, examining the pressures on the social media companies involved, the nature of the public discussion, and subsequent government regulation that did not necessarily address the problem in a way that benefits children. She emphasizes the need not only for protection but also for participation and empowerment—for finding a way to protect the vulnerable while ensuring the child's right to participate in digital spaces.
Table of contents :
Contents......Page 8
Foreword by Sonia Livingstone
......Page 10
Acknowledgments
......Page 14
I: Cyberbullying, Dignity, and Children’s Rights
......Page 18
1. When Cyberbullying Ends in Suicide
......Page 20
Projecting an Image of Safety......Page 21
Social Media Companies among Other Stakeholders......Page 24
Overview of Cyberbullying (Digital or Online Bullying)......Page 29
Focus, Themes, and Terms......Page 33
2. Can E-safety Compromise Children’s Rights?
......Page 38
Risk and Harm in Context......Page 42
Cyberbullying Defined from a Research Perspective......Page 45
The Dynamics of Bullying and Cyberbullying......Page 50
Intervention and Prevention Approaches......Page 51
Dignity and Children’s Rights......Page 52
Balancing Protection, Provision, and Participation......Page 57
E-safety Approaches to Honor Children’s Rights......Page 61
Privatization of Digital Public Sphere......Page 62
How the Use of the Terms “Platform” and “Sharing” Reflect a Company’s Business Model......Page 66
Corporate Social Responsibility......Page 67
Limited Liability for Intermediaries......Page 68
Issues Regarding Intermediary Liability......Page 70
Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)......Page 74
Social Media versus Digital Messengers......Page 76
True Identity, Pseudo-anonymity, and Anonymity......Page 77
Civil Liberties and Liabilities......Page 79
II: Vagaries of Self-Regulation
......Page 80
Imprecise Use of the Term “Cyberbullying”......Page 82
Summaries of the Cases......Page 83
Simplistic Binaries of Finger Pointing......Page 88
Social Positioning: The Problem of Oversimplified Bully-Victim Narratives......Page 92
How Blame Gaming Influences Policy......Page 93
How Privatization of the Digital Public Sphere Affects Personal Freedoms......Page 94
In the Aftermath: Ad Hoc Actions by Regulators and Policy Makers......Page 96
International Consequences for Social Media Companies......Page 100
Toward a Greater Dignity-Based Policy Debate......Page 101
5. Industry Self-Regulation in the US and in the EU
......Page 104
Historical Context......Page 105
Limitations of Traditional Regulation......Page 106
Differences in the US and the EU Self-Regulatory Environments......Page 107
Legalistic Self-Regulation: The Case of Facebook......Page 109
Established Companies: Toward More Collaborative Patterns......Page 110
Protecting Online Intermediaries from Liability—Ensuring Innovation......Page 111
Types of ARIs—Pros and Cons......Page 113
Regulation by Raised Eyebrow and Regulatory Legitimacy......Page 116
Examples of Self-Regulatory Initiatives......Page 117
Toward Mechanisms of Value to Children and Young Users......Page 120
6. Untangling the Companies’ Motives and Actions
......Page 122
Definitions, Behaviors, and Levels of Transparency......Page 124
The Evolution of Self-Organizational Efforts......Page 128
Technological Affordances and Varieties of Bullying......Page 129
Delegating the Reporting to the Community......Page 131
Newer Companies: Liability, Community, and Freedom of Speech?......Page 132
Community Autonomy and Transparency......Page 133
Enforcement: From Formal Document to Practical Operation......Page 134
Lessons Learned from Facebook......Page 135
Community Autonomy Efforts by Twitter, YouTube, Google+, and Tumblr......Page 146
Interventions on the Anonymous Platform Ask​.fm......Page 149
Secret, Whisper, and Other Anonymous Apps......Page 150
Digital Messengers: Affordances Informing Enforcement......Page 152
Outsourcing Moderation......Page 155
Proactive Moderation, Machine Learning, and AI......Page 157
Toward Transparency and Evaluation of Effectiveness......Page 160
7. The Roles of NGOs in Search of Transparency and Effectiveness
......Page 164
NGOs as Third-Party Advisers......Page 166
NGOs and the Facebook Safety Advisory Board......Page 167
Independent Advisers/Monitors or Consultants?......Page 170
Safety Centers as Hubs for Digital Citizenship?......Page 174
Digital Citizenship: Empowerment Tool or Branding Strategy?......Page 178
Company Responsibility and Self-Regulatory Effectiveness......Page 179
Tracking the Effectiveness of the NGO/Company Collaboration......Page 183
III: Policy Solutions
......Page 186
Advocating for Policy Effectiveness......Page 188
How Restrictive Policies Might Affect Platform Popularity......Page 189
Toward a Collaborative Relationship with Regulators......Page 191
Establishing the Case for More Transparency......Page 193
Can NGOs Serve as Independent Advisers?......Page 197
The Digital Citizenship Debate......Page 198
Industry as “Judge and Jury”......Page 199
Private Platforms versus the Public Sphere......Page 200
Addressing the Anonymity Issue......Page 201
Policy Recommendations......Page 202
Toward Dignity-Based Solutions......Page 210
Rights versus Company Responsibility......Page 212
Appendix A
......Page 216
Company Profiles......Page 220
Chapter 1......Page 230
Chapter 2......Page 231
Chapter 5......Page 232
Chapter 6......Page 234
Chapter 7......Page 235
Appendix B......Page 236
References
......Page 238
Index
......Page 286

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