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Braunwald心脏病:心血管医学教科书-Braunwald’s Heart disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine文件编号:454

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标题(title):Braunwald’s Heart disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine
Braunwald心脏病:心血管医学教科书
作者(author):Douglas P. Zipes, Peter Libby, Robert O. Bonow, Douglas L. Mann, Gordon F. Tomaselli, Eugene Braunwald
出版社(publisher):
大小(size):531 MB (556612734 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Cleaned hardcover version with correct pagination and bookmarks.
Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2-Volume Set......Page 2
Copyright Page......Page 4
Dedication......Page 5
Acknowledgments......Page 6
Contributors......Page 7
Preface......Page 18
Preface to the First Edition......Page 19
Video Contents......Page 20
Epidemiologic Transitions......Page 24
Current Variations in the Global Burden......Page 26
High-Income Countries......Page 28
Demographic and Social Indices......Page 29
Demographic and Social Indices......Page 30
Hypertension......Page 31
Lipids......Page 32
Diabetes......Page 33
Obesity......Page 35
Diet......Page 36
Environmental Exposures......Page 37
Risk Assessment......Page 38
Salt and Lipid Reductions......Page 39
Epidemiologic Transitions......Page 40
Cost-Effective Solutions......Page 41
Informed Consent and Decision Aids......Page 42
Clinical Ethical Judgments of Futility......Page 43
Social Media and Mobile Health......Page 44
Genetics......Page 45
Conclusion......Page 46
Transplantation......Page 47
Diagnostic Decisions......Page 48
Risk Stratification......Page 52
Changing Clinical Practice Based on New Findings......Page 53
Monitoring the Quality of Clinical Decisions......Page 54
Shared Decision Making......Page 55
Defining Quality of Care......Page 56
Types of Quality Measures......Page 57
Improving Quality of Care......Page 59
Conclusion......Page 60
Improving Quality of Care......Page 61
Controlled Trials......Page 62
Factorial Design......Page 64
Selection of Endpoint of Clinical Trial......Page 66
During Course of Trial......Page 67
During Analytic Phase of Trial......Page 69
Future Perspectives......Page 70
Future Perspectives......Page 72
Missing Data......Page 73
The Core Concepts of Personalized and Precision Medicine......Page 74
Genetics......Page 75
Drug Responses and Pharmacogenetics......Page 76
Barriers to Precision Medicine......Page 77
References......Page 79
A Brief Primer on Molecular Biology......Page 80
Keywords:......Page 81
Human Genetic Variation......Page 83
Patient Case, Part II.......Page 84
Illustrative Examples......Page 86
Complex Trait Using Extremes in a Population......Page 87
Patient Case, Part III.......Page 88
Patient Case, Part IV.......Page 89
Future Perspectives......Page 90
Novel Therapeutic Approaches......Page 91
Classes of Adverse Drug Reactions......Page 92
Plasma Concentration Monitoring......Page 98
Incorporating Pharmacogenetic Information Into Prescribing......Page 99
Incorporating Pharmacogenetic Information Into Prescribing......Page 100
Overview of Biomarkers......Page 101
Clinical Applications of Cardiovascular Biomarkers......Page 102
Proteomics and Metabolomics......Page 103
Analytic Challenges......Page 104
Applications of Mass Spectrometry–Based Discovery to Cardiometabolic Disease......Page 106
Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Value......Page 107
Risk Reclassification......Page 108
Biomarkers: General Considerations......Page 109
Ascending Biomarker Performance......Page 110
References......Page 111
The History......Page 112
Head and Neck......Page 114
Chest and Abdomen......Page 115
Jugular Venous Pressure and Waveform......Page 116
Measuring the Blood Pressure......Page 118
Assessing the Pulses......Page 119
Diastolic Sounds......Page 120
Diastolic Murmurs......Page 121
Dynamic Auscultation......Page 122
Jugular Venous Pressure......Page 124
Rales and Edema......Page 125
Other Findings......Page 126
Mitral Regurgitation......Page 127
Prosthetic Heart Valves......Page 128
Integrated, Evidence-Based Approach to Specific Cardiac Disorders......Page 129
Future Perspectives......Page 130
References......Page 131
Ischemic Heart Disease......Page 132
Valvular Heart Disease (see also Part VIII)......Page 133
The Decision to Undergo Diagnostic Testing......Page 134
Tests to Improve Identification and Definition of Cardiovascular Disease......Page 138
Regional Anesthesia......Page 139
Postoperative Intensive Care......Page 140
Coronary Artery Revascularization......Page 141
Coronary Stenting and Noncardiac Surgery......Page 142
Temperature......Page 144
References......Page 145
12 Electrocardiography......Page 147
The Normal Electrocardiogram......Page 151
The Normal P Wave......Page 152
Normal QRS Complex......Page 153
QRS Duration......Page 154
The QT Interval......Page 155
Atrial Abnormalities......Page 156
Right Atrial Abnormality......Page 157
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy......Page 158
Clinical Significance......Page 159
Clinical Significance......Page 160
Biventricular Hypertrophy......Page 161
Other Forms of Fascicular Block......Page 162
ECG Abnormalities.......Page 163
Clinical Significance.......Page 164
Rate-Dependent Conduction Blocks......Page 165
Repolarization (ST-T Wave) Abnormalities......Page 166
QRS Changes......Page 168
Evolution of ECG Changes......Page 169
ECG Localization of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction......Page 170
ECG Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction with Bundle Branch Blocks......Page 171
ECG Differential Diagnosis of Ischemia and Infarction......Page 172
Noninfarction Q Waves and Related Depolarization Changes......Page 173
ST-T Changes Simulating Ischemia and Infarction......Page 174
Drug Effects......Page 175
Potassium......Page 176
Indications and Clinical Value......Page 178
Computer Interpretation......Page 179
The Abnormal Electrocardiogram......Page 180
Future Perspectives......Page 181
References......Page 183
Myocardial Oxygen Demand and Supply Relationships During Exercise......Page 184
Exercise Test Modality and Protocols......Page 186
Exercise-Induced Symptoms......Page 189
Functional Capacity......Page 190
ST Depression......Page 191
ST Adjustments......Page 192
Sensitivity and Specificity......Page 193
Testing in Women......Page 194
Predictive Variables......Page 195
Multivariable Scores......Page 196
Severe Acquired Aortic Valve Stenosis......Page 197
Adult Congenital Heart Disease......Page 198
Chest Pain Units......Page 199
Patients with Diabetes......Page 200
Exercise Testing in Nonatherosclerotic Heart Disease......Page 202
Additional Uses for Exercise Testing......Page 203
Principles of Image Generation......Page 204
Physical Principles of Ultrasound......Page 205
Assessment of Flow and Continuity Equation......Page 209
Left Ventricular Structure: Size and Mass......Page 211
Left Ventricular Systolic Function......Page 218
Mitral Inflow Patterns......Page 222
Doppler Tissue Imaging......Page 226
Right Ventricular Structure and Function......Page 227
Left and Right Atria......Page 229
Transesophageal Echocardiography......Page 230
Three-Dimensional Echocardiography......Page 232
Contrast Echocardiography......Page 233
Myocardial Infarction......Page 237
Practical Considerations in Assessment of Regional Wall Motion......Page 238
Dilated Cardiomyopathy......Page 242
Restrictive Cardiomyopathies......Page 244
Assessment After Orthotopic Heart Transplantation......Page 245
Stress Echocardiography......Page 246
Coronary Flow Reserve and Perfusion......Page 248
Mitral Valve......Page 249
Quantification of Severity......Page 251
Mitral Regurgitation......Page 252
Primary (Degenerative) Mitral Regurgitation......Page 253
Quantitation of Mitral Regurgitation......Page 254
Quantitation of Severity......Page 256
Aortic Regurgitation......Page 258
Acquired Disorders of the Tricuspid Valve......Page 259
Prosthetic Valves......Page 262
Pericardial Effusion......Page 269
Pericardial Hematoma......Page 270
Constrictive Pericarditis......Page 271
Diseases of the Aorta......Page 272
Aortic Emergencies......Page 273
Infective Endocarditis......Page 278
Role of Echocardiography in Surgery for Endocarditis......Page 280
Pulmonary Hypertension......Page 283
Cardiac Masses......Page 284
Intracardiac Thrombus......Page 286
Secundum Atrial Septal Defect......Page 288
Ventricular Septal Defect......Page 291
Inlet Ventricular Septal Defects......Page 292
Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects......Page 294
Cardiac Procedures and Future Directions......Page 296
Handheld Echocardiography......Page 298
Cardiac Procedures and Future Directions......Page 301
References......Page 308
Valvular Heart Disease......Page 300
Overview......Page 309
Diseases Affecting Heart Size and Morphology......Page 312
Congestive Heart Failure......Page 313
Valvular Heart Disease......Page 314
Acute Myocardial Infarction......Page 320
Calcific Pericarditis......Page 322
Aortic Aneurysm......Page 326
Diseases of the Aorta......Page 328
SPECT Image Display......Page 329
Technetium 99m–Labeled Tracers......Page 330
SPECT Image Interpretation and Reporting......Page 333
Lung Uptake......Page 336
Transient Ischemic Dilation of the Left Ventricle......Page 338
Gated SPECT Imaging......Page 340
First-Pass Radionuclide Angiography or Ventriculography......Page 343
Positron Emission Tomography......Page 346
PET Perfusion Tracers......Page 347
Clinical Application of PET Myocardial Perfusion Imaging......Page 348
CT Attenuation Correction for PET......Page 349
Perfusion Tracers and Coronary Blood Flow Reserve......Page 351
Mechanism of Coronary Arteriolar Vasodilator Pharmacologic Stress......Page 353
Heterogeneity of Coronary Hyperemia with Pharmacologic Stress......Page 354
Differences Between Vasodilator and Exercise Stress......Page 355
2-18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose.......Page 356
11C-Acetate.......Page 358
Patient-Related Outcomes as a “Gold Standard”......Page 359
Identification of Treatment Benefit After Risk Stratification......Page 360
Detecting the Presence and Extent of CAD......Page 362
Influence of Perfusion Tracer on
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