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益虫-Beneficial Insects文件编号:422

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标题(title):Beneficial Insects
益虫
作者(author):David V Alford
出版社(publisher):CRC Press
大小(size):318 MB (333072635 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Insects are key components of life on our planet, and their presence is essential for maintaining balanced terrestrial ecosystems. Without insects humans would struggle to survive, and on a world scale food production would be severely compromised. Many plants and animals depend directly or indirectly on insects for their very survival, and this is particularly so in the case of insectivorous birds and other such creatures. The beneficial role of insects is often overlooked or misunderstood, and in farming circles their very presence on crops is often seen to be unwelcome. In reality, however, many insects are genuinely beneficial, as in the case of parasitic and predacious species. The use of chemical pesticides to control crop pests is becoming more tightly regulated and environmentally undesirable, and low-input farming, in which natural enemies of pests are encouraged to survive or increase, is becoming far more prevalent. Accordingly, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM) strategies are increasingly being developed, advocated and adopted.



Features:





Highlights information on many groups of insects and mites that act as natural enemies or biological control agents of phytophagous insects and mites, including plant pests.



Profusely illustrated with high-quality colour photographs.



Focuses mainly on insects and mites as natural enemies of plant pests, including parasitic and predacious species that have been accidentally or deliberately introduced in classical biological control programmes.



Reviews the role of phytophagous European insects and mites in controlling or managing European plants that have become invasive weeds in other parts of the world, notably North America, Australia and New Zealand.
Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half Title......Page 2
Title Page......Page 4
Copyright Page......Page 5
Contents......Page 6
Preface......Page 14
About the Author......Page 16
Part I: Introduction and Overview......Page 18
1: Introduction......Page 20
2: Beneficial Insects: An Overview......Page 24
2.1 Insects and Plants......Page 25
2.1.1 Insects and Pollination......Page 26
2.2 Insects and Dispersal of Fungal Spores......Page 29
2.3 Insect Associations With Animals......Page 30
2.3.1 Commensalism......Page 31
2.3.2 Mutualism......Page 32
2.3.3 Parasitism......Page 34
2.4.1 Carrion......Page 36
2.4.2 Dung......Page 37
2.4.3 Plant Material......Page 39
2.5.1 Honey......Page 40
2.5.2 Honeydew......Page 41
2.5.3 Silk......Page 42
2.5.4 Wax......Page 46
2.5.6 Dyes and Other Products Derived from Scale Insects......Page 47
2.6 Entomophagy......Page 48
2.7.1 Maggot Therapy......Page 50
2.7.2 Insects and Medical Research......Page 51
2.8 Beneficial Insects in Forensic Entomology......Page 52
Part II: Insects as Natural Enemies of Plant Pests......Page 54
3.1 Shield Bugs......Page 56
3.1.1 Arma custos: Subfamily Asopinae......Page 57
3.1.3 Picromerus bidens: Subfamily Asopinae......Page 58
3.1.5 Rhacognathus punctatus: Subfamily Asopinae......Page 59
3.1.7 Zicrona caerulea: Subfamily Asopinae......Page 60
3.2.1 Genus Himacerus......Page 61
3.2.2 Genus Nabis......Page 62
3.3.1 Genus Anthocoris......Page 63
3.3.2 Genus Orius......Page 64
3.3.3 Genus Tetraphleps......Page 65
3.4.1 Genus Loricula......Page 66
3.5.1 Subfamily Bryocorinae: Genus Campyloneura......Page 67
3.5.2 Subfamily Bryocorinae: Genus Dicyphus......Page 68
3.5.3 Subfamily Bryocorinae: Genus Macrolophus......Page 69
3.5.5 Subfamily Deraeocorinae: Genus Deraeocoris......Page 70
3.5.9 Subfamily Mirinae: Genus Phytocoris......Page 72
3.5.10 Subfamily Orthotylinae: Genus Blepharidopterus......Page 73
3.5.12 Subfamily Orthotylinae: Genus Malacocoris......Page 74
3.5.13 Subfamily Orthotylinae: Genus Orthotylus......Page 75
3.5.14 Subfamily Phylinae: Genus Atractotomus......Page 76
3.5.16 Subfamily Phylinae: Genus Pilophorus......Page 77
3.5.18 Subfamily Phylinae: Genus Psallus......Page 79
4.1 Green Lacewings......Page 82
4.1.1 Parasitoids of Green Lacewings......Page 87
4.2 Brown Lacewings......Page 88
4.3 Powdery Lacewings......Page 90
4.4 Biological Control and European Lacewings......Page 92
4.5 Mantid-flies......Page 93
4.6 Snake-flies......Page 94
5.1 Ground Beetles......Page 96
5.1.1 Tribe Bembidiini: Genus Bembidion......Page 98
5.1.3 Tribe Carabini: Genus Carabus......Page 99
5.1.5 Tribe Lebiini: Genus Demetrias......Page 100
5.1.7 Tribe Loricerini: Genus Loricera......Page 101
5.1.9 Tribe Notiophilini: Genus Notiophilus......Page 102
5.1.13 Tribe Pterostichini: Genus Poecilus......Page 103
5.1.15 Tribe Pterostichini: Genus Stomis......Page 104
5.1.19 Tribe Zabrini: Genus Amara......Page 105
5.2.1 Dendroxena quadrimaculata......Page 106
5.3.1 Subfamily Aleocharinae: Genus Aleochara......Page 107
5.3.3 Subfamily Aleocharinae: Genus Holobus......Page 108
5.3.5 Subfamily Tachyporinae: Genus Tachyporus......Page 109
5.4.1 Genus Cantharis......Page 110
5.4.2 Genus Rhagonycha......Page 111
5.5 Ladybirds......Page 112
5.5.1 Subfamily Chilocorinae: Genus Chilocorus......Page 114
5.5.3 Subfamily Chilocorinae: Genus Exochomus......Page 115
5.5.4 Subfamily Coccidulinae: Genus Scymnus......Page 116
5.5.6 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Adalia......Page 117
5.5.7 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Anatis......Page 119
5.5.9 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Coccinella......Page 120
5.5.10 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Harmonia......Page 121
5.5.11 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Hippodamia......Page 122
5.5.13 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Myzia......Page 123
5.5.15 Subfamily Coccinellinae: Genus Propylea......Page 124
5.5.16 Mildew Feeders......Page 125
5.5.17.1 Cryptolaemus montrouzieri......Page 126
5.5.17.2 Harmonia axyridis......Page 127
5.6.1 Genus Anthribus......Page 129
5.7.1 Family Cleridae: Thanasimus formicarius......Page 130
5.7.2 Family Monotomidae: Rhizophagus grandis......Page 131
6.1.1 Genus Aphidoletes......Page 134
6.1.3 Genus Endopsylla......Page 136
6.1.6 Miscellaneous Gall Midges......Page 137
6.3 Stiletto Flies......Page 138
6.5 Dagger Flies and Dance Flies......Page 140
6.7 Scuttle Flies......Page 141
6.9 Hoverflies......Page 142
6.9.2 Genus Episyrphus......Page 145
6.9.3 Genus Eupeodes......Page 146
6.9.4 Genus Meligramma......Page 147
6.9.6 Genus Pipiza......Page 148
6.9.8 Genus Scaeva......Page 149
6.9.9 Genus Sphaerophoria......Page 150
6.10 Silver Flies......Page 151
6.11 Grass Flies......Page 152
6.13 Muscid Flies......Page 153
6.14 Tachnid Flies......Page 154
6.15 Dung Flies......Page 156
7.1 Parasitic Wasps......Page 158
7.1.2.1 Family Aphelinidae......Page 159
7.1.2.2 Family Encyrtidae......Page 162
7.1.2.3 Family Eulophidae......Page 164
7.1.2.5 Family Eurytomidae......Page 166
7.1.2.7 Family Perilampidae......Page 167
7.1.2.8 Family Pteromalidae......Page 168
7.1.2.10 Family Trichogrammatidae......Page 169
7.1.3.1 Family Braconidae......Page 170
7.1.3.2 Family Ichneumonidae......Page 174
7.1.4.3 Family Proctotrupidae......Page 180
7.2.1 Ants......Page 181
7.2.2 Wasps and Hornets......Page 182
8.2 Mantises......Page 184
8.3 Earwigs......Page 185
8.4 Thrips......Page 186
8.4.1 Family Aeolothripidae......Page 187
8.5 Butterflies and Moths......Page 188
8.6 Mites......Page 190
8.6.2 Family Hemisarcoptidae......Page 191
8.6.5 Family Phytoseiidae......Page 192
8.6.7 Family Trombidiidae......Page 194
8.7 Spiders......Page 195
8.7.1 Family Theridiidae (Comb-footed Spiders)......Page 196
8.7.2 Family Linyphiidae (Money Spiders)......Page 197
8.7.5 Family Lycosidae (Wolf Spiders)......Page 198
8.7.6 Family Clubionidae......Page 200
8.7.9 Family Salticidae (Jumping Spiders)......Page 201
8.8 Harvestmen......Page 203
Part III: Insects and Mites as Natural Enemies of Weeds......Page 204
9: Beneficial Phytophagous Insects and Mites......Page 206
9.1.2 Bracken......Page 207
9.1.3 Docks......Page 208
9.2.1 Black Locust......Page 210
9.2.2 Long-leafed Wattle......Page 212
9.3.1 Floating Pennywort......Page 214
9.3.2 Water Fern......Page 216
9.4.1 Poison-hemlock......Page 218
9.4.2 Thistles......Page 220
9.4.2.1 Thistle Tortoise Beetle......Page 221
9.4.2.2 Flea Beetles......Page 223
9.4.2.3 Weevils: Genus Apion......Page 224
9.4.2.5 Weevils: Genus Hadroplontus......Page 225
9.4.2.6 Weevils: Genus Larinus......Page 226
9.4.2.8 Weevils: Genus Rhinocyllus......Page 227
9.4.2.9 Weevils: Genus Trichosirocalus......Page 228
9.4.2.11 Gall Midges......Page 229
9.4.2.13 Tephritid Flies: Genus Urophora......Page 230
9.4.2.15 Miscellaneous Insects: Lace Bugs......Page 234
9.4.2.16 Miscellaneous Insects: Thistle Crown Moth......Page 235
9.4.3 Knapweeds and Star-thistles......Page 236
9.4.3.1 Weevils: Genus Bangasternus......Page 237
9.4.3.3 Weevils: Genus Eustenopus......Page 238
9.4.3.6 Tephritid Flies: Genus Chaetorellia......Page 239
9.4.3.8 Tephritid Flies: Genus Urophora......Page 240
9.4.3.9 Miscellaneous Insects: Lace Bugs......Page 242
9.4.3.10 Miscellaneous Moths: Tortricoid Moths......Page 243
9.4.3.11 Miscellaneous Moths: Genus Pterolonche......Page 244
9.4.4 Hawkweeds......Page 245
9.4.4.3 Miscellaneous Insects......Page 246
9.4.5.1 Ragwort Flea Beetles......Page 247
9.4.5.2 Cinnabar Moth......Page 249
9.4.5.5 Knot-horn Moths......Page 250
9.4.5.6 Ragwort Seed Fly......Page 251
9.4.6 Buglosses......Page 252
9.4.6.1 Echium Longhorn Beetle......Page 253
9.4.6.3 Pollen Beetles......Page 254
9.4.6.5 Lace Bugs......Page 255
9.4.6.6 Moths......Page 257
9.4.7 Heather......Page 259
9.4.8 Spurges......Page 260
9.4.8.2 Spurge Root-boring Beetle......Page 261
9.4.8.3 Leafy Spurge Gall Midge......Page 262
9.4.8.5 Clearwing Moths......Page 263
9.4.9.1 Broom Psyllids......Page 264
9.4.9.3 Broom Leaf Beetle......Page 266
9.4.9.5 Broom Seed Weevil......Page 268
9.4.9.6 Broom Shoot Moth......Page 269
9.4.9.7 Broom Twig Miners......Page 270
9.4.10 G
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