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全球卫生:疾病、计划、系统和政策-Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, And Policies

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上传于 2020-02-28 0次下载 433次浏览
文件编号:1879
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标题(title):Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, And Policies
全球卫生:疾病、计划、系统和政策
作者(author):Michael H. Merson, Robert E. Black, Anne J. Mills
出版社(publisher):Jones & Bartlett Learning
大小(size):42 MB (44084289 bytes)
格式(extension):pdf
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Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies, Fourth Edition brings together contributions from the world's leading authorities into a single comprehensive text. It thoroughly examines the wide range of global health challenges facing low- and middle-income countries today and the various approaches nations adopt to deal with them. These challenges include measurement of health status, infectious and chronic diseases, injuries, nutrition, reproductive health, global environmental health, and complex emergencies. The book also explores the financing and management of emerging health systems as well as the roles of nation states, international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations in promoting health. Designed for graduate-level students, this text provides an expansive view of today's issues and challenges in global health and be an invaluable resource in the years to come. Updated throughout to reflect new and emerging issues, the Fourth Edition offers:
• Five new chapters: Global Health, Human Rights and Ethics; Public Health Infrastructure; Innovation, Technology, and Design; International Trade and Health; and Global Health Governance and Diplomacy
• Contributions from leading experts in their fields in both new and existing chapters
• Case studies throughout the text provide concrete examples of key points and concepts in each chapter.
Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies......Page 2
Copyright......Page 3
Contents......Page 6
Acknowledgments......Page 10
Contributors......Page 12
About the Authors......Page 18
Foreword......Page 20
Introduction......Page 22
Chapter 1 Measures of Health and Disease in Populations......Page 36
Reasons for and Approaches to Measuring Health and Disease......Page 37
Summary Measures of Population Health......Page 47
Comparisons and Trends in Disease Burden......Page 62
Burden of Disease Attributed to Risk Factors......Page 70
Conclusion......Page 72
Appendix 1......Page 73
References......Page 75
Chapter 2 Culture, Behavior, and Health......Page 78
Basic Concepts from Medical Anthropology......Page 79
Theories of Health Behavior and Behavior Change......Page 90
Common Features of Successful Health Communication and Health Promotion Programs......Page 95
Methodologies for Understanding Culture and Behavior......Page 96
Case Study: Use of a Focused Ethnographic Study to Assess the Acceptability of a Fortified Infant Cereal in Africa......Page 99
Case Study: The Slim Disease—HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa......Page 100
Ebola......Page 103
Discussion Questions......Page 104
References......Page 105
Defining Global Health in the Context of Human Rights and Ethics......Page 110
Setting the Context: Human Rights and Ethical Approaches to Global Health......Page 111
Interpreting the Right to Health......Page 114
The Challenge in Meeting the Right to Health......Page 115
Rights-Based Approach to Global Health......Page 116
Global Health and Public Health Ethics......Page 117
Case Studies in Global Health, Human Rights, and Ethics......Page 121
Conclusions......Page 126
References......Page 127
Introduction......Page 130
Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding Social Determinants of Health and Health Equity......Page 131
Addressing SDH Through Intersectoral Action and Health in All Policies......Page 139
Implications for Health Systems and Services......Page 143
Social Exclusion, Social Agency, and Power as a SDH......Page 146
Global SDH, Local Impact: Experiences of Extractive Industries in East and Southern Africa......Page 152
Evaluating Action on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Equity......Page 155
Conclusion......Page 159
References......Page 160
Chapter 5 Reproductive Health......Page 166
Demographic Trends and Fertility Determinants......Page 167
Family Planning Programs......Page 182
Impact of Reproductive Patterns on the Health of Children......Page 201
Impact of Reproductive Patterns on the Health of Women......Page 205
Mechanisms to Reduce Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries......Page 213
Discussion Questions......Page 220
References......Page 221
Overview......Page 230
Control of Infectious Diseases......Page 231
Childhood Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: The Expanded Program on Immunization......Page 233
Enteric Infections and Acute Respiratory Infections......Page 242
Bacterial Meningitis......Page 249
Mycobacterial Infections......Page 252
Sexually Transmitted Infections and AIDS......Page 258
Viral Hepatitis......Page 264
Malaria and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases......Page 267
Helminthiasis......Page 271
Zoonoses......Page 274
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers......Page 276
Infectious Causes of Blindness......Page 281
Antimicrobial Resistance......Page 283
Emergence of New Infectious Disease Threats......Page 284
Conclusion......Page 286
References......Page 287
Spectrum of Malnutrition and Its Consequences Across the Life Course......Page 294
Causes of Malnutrition......Page 322
Policies and Programs to Address Malnutrition in All Its Forms......Page 332
Discussion Questions......Page 349
References......Page 350
The Burden of Chronic Disease: Causes and Impacts......Page 370
Categories of Chronic Disease......Page 377
Global Costs and Consequences of Chronic Diseases......Page 386
Stakeholder Responses to the Growing Burden of Chronic Disease......Page 388
Future Drivers for Prevention and Management of Chronic Diseases......Page 396
Discussion Questions......Page 407
References......Page 408
Introduction......Page 416
The Global Burden of Unintentional Injuries and Violence......Page 417
Risk Factors for Unintentional Injuries and Violence......Page 428
Interventions to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence......Page 434
Advancing the Injury and Violence Prevention Agenda: Opportunities and Challenges......Page 445
References......Page 449
Introduction......Page 458
Historical Development of Global Mental Health......Page 460
Culture and Mental Disorders......Page 463
The Determinants of Mental Disorders......Page 469
The Burden of Mental Disorders......Page 472
Interventions......Page 480
Global Mental Health: Looking Ahead......Page 496
Discussion Questions......Page 500
References......Page 501
Introduction......Page 512
The Burden and Distribution of Disease from Environmental and Occupational Hazards......Page 513
Methods for Environmental Health Research and Practice......Page 523
Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts and Risks......Page 530
Occupational Health......Page 533
Major Issues in Environmental Health......Page 540
The Future of Environmental Health in an Unequal World......Page 560
Conclusion......Page 562
References......Page 563
Introduction......Page 572
Direct Public Health Impact of War......Page 576
Indirect Public Health Impact of Civil Conflict......Page 579
The Effects of Armed Conflict and Political Violence on Health Services......Page 582
Specific Health Outcomes......Page 584
Prevention and Mitigation of Complex Emergencies......Page 593
Responses to Complex Emergencies......Page 595
Rapid Assessment......Page 596
Health Information Systems......Page 598
Shelter and Environment......Page 600
Water and Sanitation......Page 601
Food Rations and Distribution......Page 602
Nutritional Rehabilitation......Page 605
Health Services: Response to Complex Emergencies......Page 607
Reproductive Health......Page 611
Communicable Disease Control......Page 613
Role of International, National, and Nongovernmental Organizations......Page 619
Conclusion......Page 625
References......Page 626
Chapter 13 The Design of Health Systems......Page 632
Understanding the Health System......Page 633
Historical Development of Health Systems......Page 638
The Role of the State......Page 640
Governance and Regulation......Page 643
Financing......Page 648
Resource Allocation......Page 655
Provision of Services......Page 660
Performance of Different Types of Systems......Page 663
Universal Health Coverage and Global Health Security......Page 665
Conclusion......Page 666
References......Page 667
Introduction......Page 672
Essential Public Health Functions......Page 674
Strengthening Public Health Systems......Page 675
Health Security......Page 692
Acknowledgments......Page 706
References......Page 707
What is Management and Planning?......Page 714
The Context of Management and Planning......Page 717
Organizing......Page 721
Planning......Page 724
Management of Resources......Page 734
Transport Management......Page 747
Key Themes in Management and Planning......Page 750
Conclusion and Challenges for Managers and Planners......Page 758
Discussion Questions......Page 760
References......Page 761
Introduction......Page 766
Pharmaceutical Availability: Upstream Issues......Page 767
Availability: Country-Level Distribution Systems and Pharmaceutical Management......Page 773
Affordability......Page 781
Safe and Effective Use of Medicines......Page 784
Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance......Page 790
Pharmaceuticals for Noncommunicable Diseases......Page 794
Discussion Questions......Page 797
References......Page 798
Innovation: A Catalyst for Change in Global Health......Page 804
Technology Platforms Impacting the Global Health Landscape......Page 806
Global Health Innovation Processes......Page 812
Technological Opportunities: Filling the Gaps in Global Health......Page 820
Conclusion......Page 824
References......Page 825
Why We Need Large-Scale Impact Evaluations......Page 828
Planning the Evaluation......Page 831
Developing an Impact Model......Page 835
Stepwise Approach to Impact Evaluations......Page 836
Types of Inference and Choice of Design..
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